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RFC 1580


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Guide to Network Resource Tools

Part 1 of 4, p. 1 to 27
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Network Working Group                                         EARN Staff
Request for Comments: 1580                              EARN Association
FYI: 23                                                       March 1994
Category: Informational


                    Guide to Network Resource Tools

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
    2. GOPHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
      2.1. What is Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
      2.2. Who can use Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.3. How to get to Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.3.1. Local clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.3.2. Remote clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.4. Using Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
      2.5. VERONICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
      2.6. Learning more about Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    3. WORLD-WIDE WEB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
      3.1. What is World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
      3.2. Who can use World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
      3.3. How to get to World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      3.3.1. Local clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      3.3.2. Remote clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      3.3.2.1. E-mail access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
      3.4. Using World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
      3.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
      3.6. Learning more about World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    4. WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
      4.1. What is WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
      4.2. Who can use WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
      4.3. How to get to WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
      4.4. Using WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
      4.4.1.  E-mail access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
      4.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
      4.6  Learning more about WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    5. ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
      5.1. What is ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
      5.2. Who can use ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
      5.3. How to get to ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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      5.4. Using ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
      5.4.1. Using a local client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
      5.4.1.1. Archie client command and parameters . . . . . . . . . 29
      5.4.2. Using Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
      5.4.3. Using electronic mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
      5.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
      5.6. Learning more about ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
    6. WHOIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
      6.1. What is WHOIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
      6.2. Who can use WHOIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
      6.3. How to get to WHOIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
      6.4. Using WHOIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
      6.4.1. Using a local client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
      6.4.2. Using Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
      6.4.3. Using electronic mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
      6.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
      6.6. Learning more about WHOIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
    7. X.500  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
      7.1. What is X.500  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
      7.2. Who can use X.500  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
      7.3. How to get to X.500  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
      7.4. Using X.500  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
      7.4.1. Using a local client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
      7.4.2. Using Telnet or X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
      7.4.3. Using electronic mail  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
      7.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
      7.6. Learning more about X.500  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    8. NETFIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
      8.1. What is NETFIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
      8.2. Who can use NETFIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
      8.3. How to get to NETFIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
      8.4. Using NETFIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
      8.4.1. Local access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
      8.4.2. Remote access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
      8.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
      8.6. Learning more about NETFIND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    9. TRICKLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
      9.1. What is TRICKLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
      9.2. Who can use TRICKLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
      9.3  How to get to TRICKLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
      9.4. Using TRICKLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
      9.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
      9.6. Learning more about TRICKLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
   10. BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
     10.1. What is BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
     10.2. Who can use BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
     10.3. How to get to BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
     10.4. Using BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

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     10.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     10.6. Learning more about BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   11. LISTSERV (Version 1.7f). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     11.1. What is LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
     11.2. Who can use LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
     11.3. How to get to LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
     11.4. Using LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
     11.4.1. Commands for LISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
     11.4.2. Commands for FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
     11.4.3. LISTSERV DATABASE Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     11.4.4. Commands for INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
     11.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
     11.6. Learning more about LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
   12. NETNEWS (USENET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
     12.1. What is NETNEWS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
     12.2. Who can use NETNEWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
     12.3. How to get to NETNEWS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
     12.4. Using NETNEWS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
     12.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
     12.6. Learning more about NETNEWS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
   13. OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
     13.1. ASTRA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
     13.1.1. What is ASTRA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
     13.1.2. How to get to ASTRA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
     13.1.3. Learning more about ASTRA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
     13.2. NETSERV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
     13.2.1. What is NETSERV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
     13.2.2. How to get to NETSERV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
     13.2.3. Learning more about NETSERV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
     13.3. MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
     13.3.1. What is MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
     13.3.2. How to get to MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
     13.3.3. Learning more about MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
     13.4. PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
     13.4.1. What is PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
     13.4.2. How to get to PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
     13.4.3. Learning more about PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
     13.5. IRC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
     13.5.1. What is IRC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
     13.5.2. How to get to IRC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
     13.5.3. Learning more about IRC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
     13.6. RELAY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
     13.6.1. What is RELAY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
     13.6.2. How to get to RELAY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  100
     13.6.3. Learning more about RELAY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  101
   14. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  101
   15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  101
   16. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  102

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   17. Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  102
   18. Appendix A - Freely available networking software  . . . . .  103
     18.1. Gopher clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  103
     18.2. World-Wide Web clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  104
     18.3. WAIS clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  105
     18.4. Netnews - news reader software . . . . . . . . . . . . .  106

1. Introduction

   As the worldwide academic computer network grows and expands far
   beyond its previous confines, so the resources and services available
   on the network evolve and multiply at a dizzying rate. The typical
   user is hardpressed to keep up with this explosive growth.
   Fortunately, a number of tools are available to facilitate the task
   of locating and retrieving network resources, so that users anywhere
   can utilize texts, data, software and information for public access.
   Facilities to explore public domain software repositories, to consult
   mailing list archives and databases, to retrieve directory
   information and to participate in global group discussions are now
   available to all.

   The key to exploiting these resources is a server, special software
   on a computer somewhere in the network which accepts requests (or
   queries or commands) and sends a response automatically. The
   requestor does not have to be working on the same computer (or even
   in the same part of the world) in order to use the server. Many
   servers accept requests via electronic mail, so that often the
   requestor needs not even be on the same computer network as the
   server. In many cases, servers are interconnected so that once you
   have established contact with one server, you can easily communicate
   with other servers as well.

   Today, many users have powerful computers on the desktop, with
   advanced graphical, audio and storage capabilities, which are
   connected to the network. This fact has given rise to what is known
   as the client-server model. Users can have special software on their
   local computer called a client which can utilize the capabilities of
   that computer and can also communicate with a server on the network.
   These clients provide an easy-to-use, intuitive user interface, allow
   use of pointing devices such as a mouse, and exploit other local
   features. The client sends the user's requests to a server using a
   standardized format (called a protocol) and the server sends its
   response in a condensed format which the client displays to the user
   in a more readable way.

   Several of the tools described herein have several different
   functions.  However they could be classified in functional areas
   according to their main purpose. Sections two and three cover two

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   services, Gopher and World-Wide Web, which use the client-server
   model to explore the network providing a means of moving through a
   wide range of network sources and resources in a uniform and
   intuitive way.  A tool for searching in a wide range of different
   databases located throughout the network, WAIS, is documented in
   section four. The problem of knowing where to find network resources
   (files and programs) is addressed in section five, which deals with
   archie. Three tools for finding people, computers and their network
   addresses, WHOIS, X.500 and Netfind, are discussed in sections six,
   seven and eight. While just about all of these network tools can be
   used to get files of one sort or another, there are a few servers
   available for getting files easily and efficiently from various
   repositories in the network. Two of these servers, TRICKLE and
   BITFTP, are covered in sections nine and ten. Sections eleven and
   twelve deal with what is perhaps the most popular of all the network
   resources, discussion groups on every imaginable topic. The two tools
   discussed there are LISTSERV and Netnews (Usenet). Section thirteen
   gives brief descriptions and pointers for a number of tools which
   were not mainstream enough to get a full description. Some are still
   in the developmental stage (Prospero), some are relatively unknown
   outside a particular network (ASTRA and Netserv from EARN/Bitnet and
   Mailbase from JANET) and some are meant for chatting rather than work
   (Relay and IRC).

   The purpose of this guide is to supply the basic information that
   anyone on the network needs to try out and begin using these tools. A
   basic knowledge of networking terminology has been assumed, as well
   as familiarity with the basic tools of networking: electronic mail
   (often referred to as e-mail or simply mail throughout this guide)
   and, for those connected to the Internet, FTP (file transfer
   protocol) and Telnet (remote login). It is beyond the scope of this
   guide to describe these basic tools. The example in the BITFTP
   section of this guide shows how one can use BITFTP to get guides to
   these tools over the network.

2. GOPHER

2.1. What is Gopher

   The Internet Gopher, or simply Gopher, is a distributed document
   delivery service. It allows users to explore, search and retrieve
   information residing on different locations in a seamless fashion.

   When browsing it, the information appears to the user as a series of
   nested menus. This kind of menu structure resembles the organization
   of a directory with many subdirectories and files. The subdirectories
   and the files may be located either on the local server site or on
   remote sites served by other Gopher servers. From the user point of

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   view, all information items presented on the menus appear to come
   from the same place.

   The information can be a text or binary file, directory information
   (loosely called phone book), image or sound. In addition, Gopher
   offers gateways to other information systems (World-Wide Web, WAIS,
   archie, WHOIS) and network services (Telnet, FTP). Gopher is often a
   more convenient way to navigate in a FTP directory and to download
   files.

   A Gopher server holds the information and handles the users' queries.
   In addition, links to other Gopher servers create a network wide
   cooperation to form the global Gopher web (Gopherspace).

2.2. Who can use Gopher

   Gopher uses the client-server model to provide access to the Gopher
   web.  You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet)
   in order to use a client on your computer to access Gopher.

2.3. How to get to Gopher

   Users explore the Gopher menus  using various local clients or
   accessing a remote client via an interactive Telnet session.

   2.3.1. Local clients

      Public domain clients for accessing a Gopher server are available
      for: Macintosh, MS-DOS, OS/2, VM/CMS, VMS, NeXT, Unix, X-Windows.
      The clients are available for anonymous FTP from many FTP sites
      (e.g., boombox.micro.umn.edu in the directory /pub/gopher). See
      the list of freely available client software in Appendix A.

   2.3.2. Remote clients

      Some sites allow public access to a client. To access such a
      remote client, telnet to one of these sites:

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |  info.anu.edu.au                 Australia (login: info)      |
      |  tolten.puc.cl                   Columbia                     |
      |  ecnet.ec                        Ecuador                      |
      |  gopher.chalmers.se              Sweden                       |
      |  consultant.micro.umn.edu        USA                          |
      |  gopher.uiuc.edu                 USA                          |
      |  panda.uiowa.edu                 USA (login: panda)           |
      |  sunsite.unc.edu                 USA                          |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

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      At the login: prompt type gopher (unless specified otherwise) and
      the top-level Gopher menu for that site will be displayed.

      Users are requested to use the site closest to them.

2.4. Using Gopher

      The implementations of the Gopher clients on various platforms are
      slightly different to take advantage of the platforms'
      capabilities (mouse, graphic functions, X-Windows server) and to
      offer the popular look and feel. Even with different
      implementations, the same set of functions and commands is
      available.

      When issuing the gopher command, you will be connected
      automatically to the default Gopher server specified at the
      installation. The format of the command is:

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  gopher    <hostname>                                         |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      where hostname is an optional alternative Gopher server you want
      to talk to.

      When connected to a Gopher server, it is still possible to access
      another server by exploring the Other Gopher servers in the rest
      of the world branch. To locate them more easily, the Gopher
      servers are distributed in geographical regions:

         * Africa
         * Europe
         * Middle East
         * North America
         * Pacific
         * South America

      and then by countries.

      Access to a Gopher server is identical whether using a local or a
      remote client: a simple menu-driven interface which doesn't
      require any special training or knowledge from the user.

      Here is a sample menu:

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      -----------------------------------------------------------------

                       Internet Gopher Information Client v1.1

                            Information About Gopher

          1.  About Gopher.
          2.  Search Gopher News <?>
          3.  Gopher News Archive/
          4.  comp.infosystems.gopher (Usenet newsgroup)/
          5.  Gopher Software Distribution/
          6.  Gopher Protocol Information/
          7.  University of Minnesota Gopher software licensing policy.
          8.  Frequently Asked Questions about Gopher.
          9.  gopher93/
          10. Gopher| example server/
          11. How to get your information into Gopher.
      --> 12. New Stuff in Gopher.
          13. Reporting Problems or Feedback.
          14. big Ann Arbor gopher conference picture.gif <Picture>


      Press ? for Help, q to Quit, u to go up a menu          Page: 1/1

      -----------------------------------------------------------------

      In the example above, any item can be selected by typing its line
      number or by moving the cursor (-->) next to it.

      An item could be:

         * a subdirectory
         * a text file
         * a binary file
         * a sound file
         * an image file
         * a phone book (directory information)
         * an index-search
         * a Telnet session

      Items are displayed with an identifying symbol next to them. In
      the example above, "<?>" means a full text index-search, "/" means
      a subdirectory, "<Picture>" means an image file and no symbol
      means a text file.

      Some Gopher clients are not able to handle certain file types
      (e.g., sound files). Some clients display only files of types they
      can handle or files they suppose you are interested in. Others

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      display all types of files.

      Most Gopher clients allow you to create, view and select
      bookmarks. A bookmark keeps track of the exact location of a
      Gopher item, regardless of where it resides. It is useful when you
      often need to reach a file or a service located far from the
      top-level directory. A collection of bookmarks is like a
      customized Gopher menu.

      Some capabilities of a local Gopher client are bound to the
      capabilities of your own computer. In fact, for sound files, image
      files and Telnet sessions, the Gopher client looks for the
      appropriate software on your computer and passes control to it to
      perform the requested task. When the task is completed, control is
      returned to the Gopher client.

      At any time, it is possible to terminate the session (quit
      command), to cancel the current processing or to get the on-line
      help (help command).

      An item is processed according to its type:

      a subdirectory
         its contents are displayed. To go up one level, use the up
         command.

      a text file
         the file is displayed. Then you can browse it, search for a
         particular string, print it on a local printer or copy (save)
         it onto your local disk space in a user-specified file (the
         last 2 functions may not be available to you).

      a binary file
         the remote file is simply copied onto your local disk space in
         a user-specified file. Binary files are binhexed Macintosh
         files, archives (.zip, .tar,...), compressed files, programs,
         etc.

      a sound file
         the remote file is played through your local audio device if it
         exists, as well as the appropriate utility. Only one sound file
         can be active at a time; you will be warned if you try to play
         a sound before a previous one is done.

      an image file
         the remote file is displayed on your computer screen if an
         image viewer exists on your computer.

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      a phone book
         you are prompted for a search string to look up people
         information through the selected phone book. Since different
         institutions have different directory services, the queries are
         not performed in the same fashion.

      an index-search
         you are prompted for a search string which may be one or more
         words, plus the special operators and, or, and not. The search
         is case-insensitive. Usually, an index is created to help users
         locate the information in a set of documents quickly. E.g.:

              terminal and setting or tset

         will find all documents which contain both the words terminal
         and setting, or the word tset. or is nonexclusive so the
         documents may contain all of the words.

         The result of the index-search looks like any Gopher menu, but
         each menu item is a file that contains the specified search
         string.

      a Telnet session
         Telnet sessions are normally text-based information services,
         for example, access to library catalogs.

2.5. VERONICA

   Veronica was designed as a solution to the problem of resource
   discovery in the rapidly-expanding Gopher web, providing a keyword
   search of more than 500 Gopher menus. Veronica helps you find
   Gopher-based information without doing a menu-by-menu, site-by-site
   search. It is to the Gopher information space, what archie is to the
   FTP archives.

   Veronica is accessible from most top-level Gopher menus or from the
   Other Gopher servers... branch. There is no need for opening another
   connection or another application.

   When you choose a veronica search , you will be prompted to enter a
   keyword or keywords. The simplest way to search with veronica is to
   enter a single word and hit the RETURN key. It does not matter
   whether the word is upper-case or lower-case. The veronica server
   will return a gopher menu composed of items whose titles match your
   keyword specification. Items can be accessed as with any Gopher menu.
   E.g.:

        eudora

Top      ToC       Page 11 
   will give you a list of menu titles that contain eudora, such as:

        Electronic Mail: Eudora on Macintosh, Micro-08
        Modem Setting Eudora Slip.
        A UNIX-based Eudora reader for those that ...
        Eudora:  Popmail for the Macintosh.
        Eudora.

   etc.

   The search string may contain keywords optionally separated by and,
   or and not. If there is no operator between 2 keywords, and is
   assumed. E.g.:

        eudora and macintosh

   will give you a list of menu titles that contain both eudora and
   macintosh, such as:

        Eudora:  Popmail for the Macintosh.
        v4.1 EUDORA: E-MAIL FOR THE MACINTOSH.
        Micro News:  Eudora - A Mailer for the Macintosh.
        Eudora: Electronic Mail on Your Macintosh.
        ACS News - Eudora Mail Reader for Macintosh.

   etc.

   "*" is the wildcard character. It can replace any other character or
   characters at the end of a keyword. E.g.:

        desk*

   will give you a list of menu titles, such as:

        The Help Desk.
        Keene State College Press Release COMPUTER ON EVERY DESK.
        DESKQview/X... An alternative to Windows???.
        Ethernet at Your Desktop/

   etc.

2.6. Learning more about Gopher

   The Internet Gopher is developed by the Computer and Information
   Services Department of the University of Minnesota. Bug reports,
   comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to the Gopher
   development team at: gopher@boombox.micro.umn.edu.

Top      ToC       Page 12 
   Mailing list: gopher-news@boombox.micro.umn.edu
   To subscribe send a mail to:
   gopher-news-request@boombox.micro.umn.edu

   Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.gopher

   A comprehensive description of veronica search methods is available
   from the veronica menus.

   Veronica is being developed by Steve Foster and Fred Barrie at the
   University of Nevada. Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should
   be addressed to: gophadm@futique.scs.unr.edu

3. WORLD-WIDE WEB

3.1. What is World-Wide Web

   World-Wide Web (also called WWW or W3) is an information system based
   on hypertext, which offers a means of moving from document to
   document (usually called to navigate) within a network of
   information.

   Hypertext documents are linked to each other through a selected set
   of words. For example, when a new word, or a new concept, is
   introduced in a text, hypertext makes it possible to point to another
   document which gives more details about it. The reader can open the
   second document by selecting the unknown word or concept and the
   relevant section is displayed. The second document may also contain
   links to further details. The reader need not know where the
   referenced document is, and there is no need to type a command to
   display it, or to browse it to find the right paragraph.
   Cross-references may be defined in the same document. A collection of
   documents is a database.

   If you were reading this document on a hypertext system, instead of
   this all too short explanation about hypertext, you would have a
   selectable pointer to a complete hypertext information web with
   examples and more pointers to other definitions.

   For instance, in the first document you might read:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   The  WorldWideWeb (W3)  is a  wide-area "hypermedia"  information
   retrieval initiative aiming  to give universal access  to a large
   universe of documents.

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

Top      ToC       Page 13 
   Selecting hypermedia will display the following explanation for you:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

                          WHAT IS HYPERTEXT
   Hypertext is text which is not constrained to be linear.

   Hypertext is text which contains "links" to other texts. The term
   was coined by "Ted Nelson" around 1965 (see "History").

   HyperMedia is a term used  for hypertext which is not constrained
   to  be text:  it can  include  graphics, video  and "sound",  for
   example. Apparently Ted Nelson was the first to use this term too.

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   Then you can learn more about links and Nelson. Indeed, the links in
   WWW are not confined to text only, so the term hypermedia is more
   accurate.  For example, the link to Nelson might point to a file
   containing a picture of Ted Nelson. The picture would be displayed on
   your screen if you have a suitable configuration.

   Also, special documents (indexes) in the WWW information space can be
   search for given keyword(s). The result is a document which contains
   links to the documents found.

   World-Wide Web uses hypertext over the network: the linked documents
   may be located at various sites. WWW can handle different text
   formats and various information organizations. WWW also provides
   access to many of the other tools described in this guide.

3.2. Who can use World-Wide Web

   WWW uses the client-server model to provide access to the information
   universe. You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the
   Internet) in order to use a client on your computer to access WWW. If
   you are on the Internet, but don't have a WWW client on your
   computer, you can still enter the World-Wide Web. Several sites offer
   public interactive access to WWW clients (see the Remote clients
   section under How to get to World-Wide Web below).

   If you have e-mail access only, or if you are not on the Internet
   then you can not fully exploit the vast potential of WWW. However, a
   mail-robot is available at the address: listserv@info.cern.ch which
   gives e-mail access to WWW-accessible listserv@info.cern.ch files.
   (see E-mail access section under How to get to World-Wide Web below).

Top      ToC       Page 14 
3.3. How to get to World-Wide Web

   Users access the World-Wide Web facilities via a client called a
   browser. This interface provides transparent access to the WWW
   servers.  If a local WWW client is not available on your computer,
   you may use a client at a remote site. Thus, an easy way to start
   with WWW is to access a remote client.

   3.3.1. Local clients

      Usage of a local client is encouraged since it provides better
      performance and better response time than a remote client.

      Public domain clients for accessing WWW servers are available for:
      Macintosh, MS-DOS, VMS, VM/CMS, MVS, NeXT, Unix, X-Windows. The
      clients are available for anonymous FTP from info.cern.ch in the
      directory /pub/www. All these platforms support a simple line mode
      browser. In addition, graphical clients are available for:
      Macintosh, Windows, X-Windows, NeXT and Unix. See the list of
      freely available client software in Appendix A.

   3.3.2. Remote clients

      To access a remote WWW client, telnet to the client site. If you
      are new to WWW, you should telnet to info.cern.ch. No login is
      needed. You will immediately enter the WWW line mode browser. Some
      publicly accessible clients feature locally developed clients.
      Most remote clients are at sites with WWW servers with information
      on specific areas. After you telnet to the client site, at the
      login: prompt enter www, no password is needed. The following
      remote client sites are available:

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  Site                   Country          Server Specialization|
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |  vms.huji.ac.il         Israel            Environment         |
      |  info.cern.ch           Switzerland (CERN) High-energy physics|
      |  fatty.law.cornell.edu  USA               Law                 |
      |  ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu   USA               History             |
      |  www.njit.edu           USA                                   |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      CERN is the entry point to find information about WWW itself and
      to have an overview of the Web with a catalogue of the databases
      sorted by subject.

Top      ToC       Page 15 
      3.3.2.1. E-mail access

         In order to get a file, send mail to listserv@info.cern.ch with
         a SEND command. The SEND command returns the document with the
         given WWW address, subject to certain restrictions. Hypertext
         documents are formatted to 72 character width, with links
         numbered. A separate list at the end of the file gives the
         document-addresses of the related documents.

         If the document is hypertext, its links will be marked by
         numbers in brackets, and a list of document addresses by number
         will be appended to the message. In this way, you can navigate
         through the web, more or less. A good file to start with would
         be:
      http://info.cern.ch./hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview.html

         Note that, despite the name listserv in the address of this
         mail robot, it is not a LISTSERV server.

         A note of caution from the WWW developers and maintainers:

         "As the robot gives potential mail access to a *vast* amount of
         information, we must emphasise that the service should not be
         abused.  Examples of appropriate use would be:

         * Accessing any information about W3 itself;
         * Accessing any CERN and/or physics-related or network
           development related information;

         Examples of INappropriate use would be:

         * Attempting to retrieve binaries or tar files or anything more
           than directory listings or short ASCII files from FTP archive
           sites;
         * Reading Usenet newsgroups which your site doesn't receive;
         * Repeated automatic use.

         There is currently a 1000 line limit on any returned file. We
         don't want to overload other people's mail relays or our
         server. We reserve the right to withdraw the service at any
         time. We are currently monitoring all use of the server, so
         your reading will not initially enjoy privacy.

         Enjoy!"

         The W3 team at CERN (www-bug@info.cern.ch)

Top      ToC       Page 16 
3.4. Using World-Wide Web

   When using a graphical interface, you access the WWW functions by
   pressing mouse buttons. In particular, references are highlighted or
   underlined words. To follow a link, click on the associated
   reference.

   The line mode browser is a more simple user interface: references are
   numbers in square brackets next to words. Type the number and hit the
   RETURN key to follow a reference. For example, here is the beginning
   of the Subject Catalogue you get on the CERN server:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

         The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Subject Catalogue
                         WWW VIRTUAL LIBRARY

   This is  the subject catalogue.  See also arrangement  by service
   type[1]. Mail  www-request@info.cern.ch to  add pointers  to this
   list.

   Aeronautics     Mailing list archive index[2]. See also NASA LaRC[3]

   Agriculture[4]  Separate list, see also Almanac mail servers[5].

   Astronomy and Astrophysics
                   Abstract Indexes[6] at NASA, Astrophysics work at
                   FNAL[7],   Princeton's[8]   Sloane  Digital   Sky
                   Survey,  the  STELAR   project,  Space  Telescope
                   Electronic Information System[9], the Southampton
                   University  Astronomy   Group[10],  the  National
                   Solar Observatory[11],  Astrophysics work  at the
                   AHPCRC[12]. See also: space[13].

   Bio Sciences[14] Separate list.

   Computing[15]   Separate list.

   1-81, Back, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   The following commands are available within WWW. Some are disabled
   when not applicable (e.g., Find is enabled only when the current
   document is an index). Angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional
   parameter.

Top      ToC       Page 17 
   Help
      gives a list of available commands depending on the context, and
      the hypertext address of the current document.

   Manual
      displays the on-line manual.

   Quit
      exits WWW.

   Up, Down
      scrolls up or down one page in the current document.

   Top, BOttom
      goes to the top or the bottom of the current document.

   Back
      goes back to the document you were reading before.

   HOme
      goes back to the first document you were reading.

   Next, Previous
      goes to the next or previous document in the list of pointers from
      the document that led to the current one.

   List
      gives a numbered list of the links from the current document. To
      follow a link, type in the number.

   Recall <number>
      if number is omitted, gives a numbered list of the documents you
      have visited.

      To display one specific document, re-issue the command with
      number.

   <Find> keyword
      queries the current index with the supplied keyword(s). A list of
      matching entries is displayed with possibly links to further
      details.  Find can be omitted if the first keyword does not
      conflict with another WWW command. Multiple keywords are separated
      by blanks.

   Go docaddress
      goes to the document represented by the given hypertext address,
      which is interpreted relatively to the current document.

Top      ToC       Page 18 
   Extra command available on Unix versions only:

   Print
      prints the current document, without the numbered document
      references.  The default print command is lpr, but it may be
      defined in your local working environment by the variable
      WWW_PRINT_COMMAND.

   To access WWW with the line mode browser, type: www. The default
   first document will appear on your screen. From this point, you
   should be able to navigate through the WWW universe by reading the
   text and following the instructions at the bottom of the screen. If
   you want to start with a first document other than the default, or if
   you want to change some other aspect of the usual interaction, there
   are a number of command line parameters and options available. The
   full format of the www command to invoke the line mode browser is:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |   www      <options>  <docaddress <keyword>>                  |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   docaddress
      is the hypertext address of the document at which you want to
      start browsing.

   keyword
      queries the index specified by docaddress with the supplied
      keyword(s).  A list of matching entries is displayed. Multiple
      keywords are separated by blanks.

   Options are:

   -n
      non-interactive mode. The document is formatted and displayed to
      the screen. Pages are delimited with form feed characters (FF).

   -listrefs
      adds a list of the addresses of all documents references to the
      end.  Non-interactive mode only.

   -pn
      sets the page length to n lines. Without a number, makes the page
      length infinite. Default is 24.

Top      ToC       Page 19 
   -wn
      sets the page width to n columns. The default is 78, 79 or 80
      depending on the system.

   -na
      hides references in the text. Useful, when printing out the
      document.

   -version
      displays the version number of the software.

   The commands listed above should be available in all clients. They
   may be abbreviated (CAPITAL letters indicate acceptable
   abbreviation). Case is not significant. Special characteristics of
   the line mode browser interface are:

   number
      type in a number given in [] and hit the RETURN key to follow the
      link associated to the reference.

   RETURN
      hit the RETURN key to display the next page of the current
      document (without a reference number).

3.5. Examples

   WWW gives you access to an information universe. Let's say you want
   to know how many film versions of The Three Musketeers there have
   been. You browse the WWW Subject Catalogue and select Movies:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

                                    Movie database browser (Cardiff)
   A Hypertext movie database browser

   Sep 2nd... Your help is needed..[1]

   Aug 29th.. Images, sounds, mpegs & reviews[2]


   Select the type of search you'd like to perform:-

      Movie people[3].....(multi Oscar winners)[4] or

      Movie titles[5] .....(multi Oscar winners)[6]

   Searches the "rec.arts.movies" movie database system, maintained
   by Col Needham et-al.

Top      ToC       Page 20 
   Here[7] is some information on list maintainers.

   If you have a comment or suggestion, it can be recorded here[8]

   HERE[9] is a pre-1986 movie information gopher server. (at
           Manchester UK)

   1-13, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: 5

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   You select Movie titles, and then type three musketeers as keywords:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

                                                 Movie title queries
                          MOVIE TITLE QUERY

   Enter a movie title or substring.

   Example,  to search  for movies  with the  word "alien"  in their
   title, type "alien".

   This will return details on several movies, including Aliens[1]

   Note: if the title begins with A  or The, leave it out. If you're
   determined to include it, then put ', A' or ', The' at the end of
   the of the substring e.g.

      Enforcer, The

      Gauntlet, The

   Searching is case insensitive.

    search menu[2] Fun and Games page[3] COMMA home page[4]

   FIND <keywords>, 1-5, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more,
   or Help: three musketeers

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   You find that there have been six film versions of the story:

Top      ToC       Page 21 
   -----------------------------------------------------------------

                                                          Movie Info
   Here are the results from the search for "three musketeers"

         Three Musketeers, The (1921)[1]

         Three Musketeers, The (1933)[2]

         Three Musketeers, The (1935)[3]

         Three Musketeers, The (1939)[4]

         Three Musketeers, The (1948)[5]

         Three Musketeers, The (1974)[6]

       search menu[7] Fun and Games page[8] COMMA home page[9]


                                                           Rob.H[10]

                                          Robert.Hartill@cm.cf.ac.uk


   FIND <keywords>, 1-10, Back, Up, Quit, or Help: 1

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   You decide to look for more information on the 1921 version:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

                                                          Movie Info
   Here are the results from the search for "Three Musketeers, The (1921)"

                         THREE MUSKETEERS, THE (1921)

   1921

     Cast           Belcher, Charles[1] ......Bernajoux
                    De Brulier, Nigel[2] ......Cardinal Richelieu
                    De La Motte, Marguerite[3] ......Constance Bonacieux
                    Fairbanks, Douglas[4] ......D'Artagnan
                    Irwin, Boyd[5] ......Comte de Rochefort
                    MacLaren, Mary[6] ......Queen Anne of Austria
                    Menjou, Adolphe[7] ......Louis XIII
                    Pallette, Eugene[8] ......Aramis

Top      ToC       Page 22 
                    Poff, Lon[9] ......Father Joseph
                    Siegmann, George[10] ......Porthos
                    Stevens, Charles[11] ......Planchet

     Directed by    Niblo, Fred[12]

     Music by       Gottschalk, Louis F.[13]

   1-21, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: 7

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   You're hooked! You decide to look for more information on Adolphe
   Menjou, search more titles, find Oscar winners, etc.

3.6. Learning more about World-Wide Web

   World-Wide Web is being developed at CERN (European Particle Physics
   Laboratory) by the World-Wide Web team leaded by Tim Berners-Lee. Bug
   reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to:
   www-bug@info.cern.ch

   On-line documentation is available from info.cern.ch, for anonymous
   FTP or using the remote WWW client.

   Mailing lists: www-talk@info.cern.ch
   To subscribe send a mail to www-talk-request@info.cern.ch

   Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.www

4. WAIS

4.1. What is WAIS

   WAIS, Wide Area Information Server,  is a distributed information
   retrieval system. It helps users search databases over networks using
   an easy-to-use interface. The databases (called sources) are mostly
   collections of text-based documents, but they may also contain sound,
   pictures or video as well. Databases on topics ranging from
   Agriculture to Social Science can be searched with WAIS.

   The databases may be organized in different ways, using various
   database systems, but the user isn't required to learn the query
   languages of the different databases. WAIS uses natural language
   queries to find relevant documents. The result of the query is a set
   of documents which contain the words of the query: no semantic
   information is extracted from the query.

Top      ToC       Page 23 
4.2. Who can use WAIS

   WAIS uses the client-server model to provide access to databases. You
   must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) in order
   to use a client on your computer to access WAIS.

   If you have e-mail access only, or if you are not on the Internet you
   can still exploit some of the potential of WAIS. An e-mail interface
   is available at the address: waismail@quake.think.com which gives
   e-mail access to WAIS databases (see E-mail access section under
   Using WAIS below).

4.3. How to get to WAIS

   There are many WAIS servers throughout the network. A
   directory-of-servers database is available at several sites. You can
   address a query to it, e.g., to find out what databases are available
   on a particular subject. This database is also available via
   anonymous FTP from Think.com in the directory /wais as file
   wais-sources.tar.Z.

   If you do not have access to a WAIS client, (at least) two
   demonstration sites are available to allow you to get acquainted with
   WAIS. You can telnet to:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  quake.think.com   (login: wais)                              |
   |  sunsite.unc.edu   (login: swais)                             |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   The two demonstration sites above run swais (Screen WAIS), a simple
   WAIS client for Unix.

4.4. Using WAIS

   There are many freely available client software programs for various
   operating systems (Unix, VMS, MVS, MS-DOS, OS/2 and Macintosh) and
   for specific environments (GNU Emacs, X-Windows, Openlook, Sunview,
   NeXT, and MS-Windows). See the list of freely available client
   software in Appendix A.

   The client interface differs slightly on different platforms.
   However, the queries are performed in the same way, whatever the
   interface.

Top      ToC       Page 24 
   * Step 1: The user selects a set of databases to be searched from
     among the available databases.

   * Step 2: The user formulates a query by giving keywords to be
     searched for.

   * Step 3: When the query is run, WAIS asks for information from each
     selected database.

   * Step 4: Headlines of documents satisfying the query are displayed.
     The selected documents contain the requested words and phrases.
     Selected documents are ranked according to the number of matches.

   * Step 5: To retrieve a document, the user simply selects it from the
     resulting list.

   * Step 6: If the response is incomplete, the user can state the
     question differently or feed back to the system any one or more of
     the selected documents he finds relevant.

   * Step 7: When the search is run again, the results will be updated
     to include documents which are similar to the ones selected,
     meaning documents which share a large number of common words.

4.4.1. E-mail access:

   You can query WAIS databases and retrieve documents by sending
   commands in the body part of an e-mail message to
   waismail@quake.think.com. The Subject: line is ignored. The important
   commands are (a vertical bar (|) indicates a choice of parameters):

   help
      to get the help file

   maxres number
      to set the maximum number of results to be returned.

   search source-name | "source-name1 source-name2 ..." keywords

      where:

      source-name
         is a source name as found in the directory-of-servers (with or
         without the .src ending). Use double-quotes (") to group
         several sources to be searched.

      keywords
         are the words you would normally type into a query.

Top      ToC       Page 25 
      You may specify several search requests in a mail message. If you
      don't know what sources you can search, just try anything. If the
      source name is not recognised, you'll get a list of sources.

   retrieve docid
      to retrieve a document from a database. docid is a DocID as
      returned by a search above. You may put more than one retrieval
      request in a mail message, but you must leave a blank line between
      requests. The docid must be written exactly as returned by a
      search request, including any spaces. You can retrieve non-text
      documents as well as text. If the document is of type TEXT or WSRC
      you will get the result directly. Other types will be UUENCODED.

      DocID: docid
      same as retrieve. This form is identical to the form which is
      returned by a search request. It makes it easy to use the reply
      mail function to retrieve results.

4.5. Examples

   When you log in to the demonstration site at quake.think.com, you
   have immediate access to the directory-of-servers database via the
   swais client software. To find recipes using papaya, you would select
   the recipes database and give papaya as the keyword. Here are the
   results of the search:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

     #  Score Source                  Title                    Lines
   001: 1000 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Dawn's Muffins, Pt III     339
   002: 1000 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Muffins 3                  632
   003: 1000 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Pineapple                  678
   004:  750 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Pork and Papaya Salad       33
   005:  750 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Bread                      681
   006:  500 (recipes) roder@cco. Re: NONFAT BAKERY COLLECTION   423
   007:  500 (recipes) shiva@hoss Re: Juice Recipes               65
   008:  250 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Prawn Salad                 49
   009:  250 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: COLLECTION: Lots of Avoca  447
   010:  250 (recipes) mecca@acsu Re: REQUEST: blender-made fru   29
   011:  250 (recipes) Ann.Adamci Re: Re: REQUEST: blender-made   38
   012:  250 (recipes) patth@Pani Re: Re: REQUEST: blender-made   49
   013:  250 (recipes) arielle@ta Re: Avocados                   459
   014:  250 (recipes) red_trek@d Re: VEGAN: red beans and rice   78

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   You can then select any of the above documents for viewing, for
   example, the Pork and Papaya Salad recipe:

Top      ToC       Page 26 
   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   Newsgroups: rec.food.recipes
   From: arielle@taronga.com (Stephanie da Silva)
   Subject: Pork and Papaya Salad
   Message-ID: <5BBP2SB@taronga.com>
   Date: Mon, 29 Mar 1993 06:51:47 GMT
   Lines: 23

   1/4 cup dried currants
   1/2 cup balsamic vinegar
   1/4 cup walnut oil
   1/4 cup chicken broth
   1 tablespoon honey
   1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
   1 pound cooked boneless pork loin roast
   1 head Belgian endive
   Bibb lettuce leaves
   2 papayas, seeded, peeled and sliced lengthwise
   2 avocados, seeded, peeled and sliced lengthwise
   1/4 cup broken walnut pieces

   In a small bowl pour enough boiling water over currants to cover.
   Let stand 5 minutes; drain. For dressing, in a screw-top jar
   combine vinegar, oil, chicken broth, honey, and cinnamon. Cover;
   shake well. Trim fat from pork; slice thinly. Separate leaves of
   Belgian endive. Line 6 salad plates with lettuce leaves. Arrange
   pork, endive, papaya, and avocado on plates. Sprinkle with
   currants and walnuts. Drizzle dressing over salads.

   Stephanie da Silva                            arielle@taronga.com

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   If you give more than one keyword, then all documents containing any
   of the keywords will be listed.

4.6. Learning more about WAIS

   A bibliography of documents, services and sources for WAIS is
   maintained by Barbara Lincoln Brooks of WAIS Inc. The bibliography is
   available from ftp.wais.com in the directory /pub/wais-inc-doc along
   with many other WAIS documents.

   There are currently four main FTP sites for WAIS documentation and
   software:

Top      ToC       Page 27 
      * ftp.cnidr.org
      * ftp.wais.com
      * quake.think.com
      * sunsite.unc.edu

   For information on free WAIS software contact freewais@cnidr.org

   Mailing list: wais-discussion@wais.com
   To subscribe send a mail to wais-discussion-request@wais.com

   Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.wais

   WAIS was developed at Thinking Machines Corporation.



(page 27 continued on part 2)

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