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RFC 1580


Guide to Network Resource Tools

Part 4 of 4, p. 87 to 107
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12.1. What is NETNEWS

   Netnews, or Usenet as it is more commonly called, is a message
   sharing system that exchanges messages electronically around the
   world in a standard format. Messages exchanged on Usenet are arranged
   by topic into categories called newsgroups. Netnews is, thus, a huge
   collection of messages, being passed from machine to machine. The
   messages may contain both plain text and encoded binary information.
   The messages also contain header lines that define who the message
   came from, when the message was posted, where it was posted, where it
   has passed, and other administrative information.

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   The major, hierarchical categories of Usenet newsgroups which are
   distributed throughout the world are alt, comp, misc, news, rec, sci,
   soc, and talk. There are many other major categories which may be
   topical (e.g., bionet, biz, vmsnet) and are usually distributed
   worldwide as well, or geographical and even organizational (e.g.,
   ieee) or commercial (e.g., clari). The latter categories are usually
   distributed only with their area of interest. The messages of many
   Bitnet LISTSERV mailing lists are also distributed in Usenet under
   the major category bit.

   The major categories are further broken down into more than 1200
   newsgroups on different subjects which range from education for the
   disabled to Star Trek and from environmental science to politics in
   the former Soviet Union. The quality of the discussion in newsgroups
   is not guaranteed to be high. Some newsgroups have a moderator who
   scans the messages for the group before they are distributed and
   decides which ones are appropriate for distribution.

   Usenet was originally developed for Unix systems in 1979. Within a
   year, fifty Unix sites were participating. Now, there are thousands
   of sites running a number of operating systems on a variety of
   hardware platforms communicating via Usenet around the globe.

12.2. Who can use NETNEWS

   Usenet newsgroups can be read at thousands of sites around the world.
   In addition, there are several sites that provide public dial-up
   service so that people who are not at a Usenet site can have access
   to newsgroups as well. If you don't know if your site has Usenet
   access, check with your local computer support people.

   Protocols and software for the distribution of news are in use in
   several networks, such as the Internet, UUCP, EARN/Bitnet and

   If you have e-mail service only, then you can not access Usenet.
   However, many newsgroups are connected to mailing lists which you
   could join. For a list of these newsgroups and their associated
   mailing lists, send mail to LISTSERV@AMERICAN.EDU with the line: GET
   NETGATE GATELIST.  Moreover, many of the documents which appear
   periodically in newsgroups are available by e-mail from For instructions, send a message with the
   subject: HELP.

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12.3. How to get to NETNEWS

   If your site provides Usenet access, then you just need to use one of
   the many software packages available for reading news (at least one
   is probably available on your computer). These packages either access
   a local news spool, or use the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
   to access the news spool on some other computer in the network.

   Within EARN, a network of Netnews distribution has been developed,
   providing efficient distribution of Usenet traffic while minimizing
   the load on the network for the participating countries.

   If Usenet is not available to you and you would like to arrange
   access for your site, contact your system administrator. You should
   also read the article How to become a USENET site which is posted
   periodically to the news.answers newsgroup. It is also available by
   anonymous FTP from as
   /pub/usenet/news.answers/site-setup or by mail to: with the line: send

12.4. Using NETNEWS

   There are many software packages available for reading and
   distributing Netnews on a variety of operating systems (Unix, VMS,
   VM/CMS, MVS, Macintosh, MS-DOS and OS/2) and environments (Emacs,
   X-Windows, MS-Windows). See the list of freely available news reader
   software packages in Appendix A. Note that the number of software
   packages available to run news, especially on PCs, is increasing.

   In addition to the software packages specifically designed to be news
   readers, many other communications programs, particular mail
   interfaces, provide the possibility for Usenet access in addition to
   their main function.

   Most, if not all, of the news readers provide the same basic

      * Subscribing to newsgroups: This means that your news reading
        software will make these groups immediately accessible, so that
        you can choose to read the postings of groups that interest you
        quickly and easily.

      * Unsubscribing from newsgroups: Removing groups from your easy
        access list.

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      * Reading newsgroup postings: Your news reader presents postings
        to you and keeps track of which postings you have and have not

      * Threads of discussion: You can follow groups of postings that
        deal with the same subject easily.

      * Posting to news groups: You can participate in group
        discussions; your news reader knows where to send your posting.

      * Responding to a posting: You can send a response to the
        newsgroup (often called follow-up) or to the author of a posting
        (often called reply).

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12.5. Examples

   When you enter the tin news reader, you get a listing of the
   newsgroups to which you are subscribed:


                            Group Selection (9)              h=help

      1 30637 bit.listserv.novell   local list
      2  1106 comp.mail.misc        General discussions about compu
      3  8031 comp.protocols.tcp-ip TCP and IP network protocols.
      4   840 comp.sys.mac
      5  8789 news.answers          Repository for periodic USENET
   -> 6    29 news.lists            News-related statistics and lis
      7 15056 rec.woodworking       Hobbyists interested in woodwor
      8  7094 sci.psychology        Topics related to psychology.
      9 13093 soc.culture.celtic    Celtic, Irish, & Welsh culture

                            *** End of Groups ***


   In tin, selecting a newsgroup is done with the arrow keys. When you
   select a group, you get a listing of the articles:


                       comp.mail.misc (41T 64A 0K 0H)         h=help

       1 +   RIPEM Frequently Noted Vulnerabilities  Marc VanHeyningen
       2 +   RIPEM Frequently Asked Questions        Marc VanHeyningen
       3 +   Mail Archive Server software list       Jonathan I. Kamen
       4 + 1 UNIX Email Software Survey FAQ          Chris Lewis
       5 + 2 PC Eudora and Trumpet Winsock problem   Jim Graham
       6 +   X11 mail reader                         Dominique Marant
       7 +   MIME supporting e-mail                  Tim Goodwin
       8 + 1 IBM User name and Address Server        Wes Spears
       9 + 5 Newbie needs MHS/SMTP question answered Chris Pearce
      10 +   FAQ - pine                              Bruce Lilly
      11 +   FAQ: International E-mail accessibility Olivier M.J. Crep
   -> 12 +   PC E-Mail and Dial-in                   Edward Vielmetti
      13 +   Prodigy Mail Manager "01/07"            an33127@anon.pene
      14 +   Prodigy Mail Manager "02/07"            an33127@anon.pene
      15 +   Prodigy Mail Manager "03/07"            an33127@anon.pene


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   tins is a threaded news reader: replies to a posting are grouped
   together with the original posting, so that the reader can follow a
   thread of discussion. Above, you see the threads, the number of
   replies in each thread, the subject and the author. The plus sign (+)
   indicates that not all postings in the thread have been read. Other
   news readers show other details. When you select an item, it appears
   on your screen:


   Wed, 01 Sep 1993 07:05:49     comp.mail.misc     Thread  13 of 41
   Lines 27          Re: PC E-Mail and Dial-in          No responses  Edward Vielmetti at Msen, Inc. --  Ann Arbor

   Sherry H. Lake ( wrote:

   :    I am looking for an email package that will allow a user to
   : dial-in to his mail machine download any messages to his local
   : PC, delete the messages from the server and then automatically
   : sign him off. The user can then use his client software (local)
   : to read, compose and reply. He then would have to dial-in again
   : to so his outgoing mail will be uploaded to the server.
   Various POP clients for PCs or Windows Sockets will do roughly
   this. You should look at:

   -  NUPOP (MS-DOS)
   -  Eudora for Windows (Windows)
   -  WinQVT/Net (Windows)
   -  various commercial POP clients listed in the 'alt.winsock'
      directory of commercial Windows systems

   You'll want to look particularly for dial up IP software (SLIP or
   PPP) that makes the process of connecting minimally onerous, e.g.
   by scripting the session so that the users don't have to type
   anything, perhaps by automatically dialing for you when you go to
   read or otherwise open a network connection, and offering a
   reasonable way to disconnect.

   Edward Vielmetti, vice president for research, Msen Inc. Msen Inc., 628 Brooks, Ann Arbor MI 48103
   +1 313 998 4562 (fax: 998 4563)


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12.6. Learning more about NETNEWS

   News programs communicate with each other according to standard
   protocols, some of which are described by Internet Request For
   Comments (RFC). Copies of RFCs are often posted to the network and
   obtainable from archive sites. Current news-related RFCs include the

        RFC 977   specifies NNTP, the Network News Transfer Protocol,

        RFC 1036  specifies the format of Usenet articles.

   Some newsgroups carry articles and discussions on the use of Usenet,
   notably: news.announce.newusers, news.answers and

   Many of the articles which appear periodically in these newsgroups or
   in others are also available from by anonymous FTP or by
   mail to:


13.1. ASTRA

13.1.1. What is ASTRA

   The ASTRA service allows users to retrieve documents from databases
   known by ASTRA throughout the network. Users can send their queries
   to the ASTRA server which in turn forwards the query to the related
   database servers. This provides an easy-to-use uniform access method
   to a large number of databases.

   ASTRA provides the same user interface for all databases it can
   access, even if the database servers have different access languages,
   such as STAIRS, ISIS or SQL.

   Each database defined in ASTRA has an abstract which holds
   information about the database: title, name of the maintainers, a
   brief description of the database, the main topics of the database
   and its language. Users are advised to look at the abstracts before
   sending requests, to avoid sending requests to the wrong databases.

   Some databases actually combine several different databases that deal
   with the same topics. When a user sends a request for such a
   database, the request is forwarded to all related databases.

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13.1.2. How to get to ASTRA

   Anyone who can send electronic mail to EARN/Bitnet can access ASTRA.
   Interactive user interfaces (clients) to ASTRA are available for VM
   and VMS systems on the EARN/Bitnet network. For all other users,
   there is a batch language that permits batch queries using e-mail.

   Currently there are five ASTRA servers installed at the following

   |                                                               |
   |  ASTRADB@IFIBDP.BITNET                                        |
   |                                                               |

13.1.3. Learning more about ASTRA

   An extensive help file is available by sending the command HELP to

   The LISTSERV list ASTRA-UG is used for the distribution of a
   newsletter about new databases or new versions of the current
   databases. To subscribe, send the command:

        SUB ASTRA-UG Your Name


   An ASTRA newsletter is also available by sending the command NEWS to

   The developers of the ASTRA service may be contacted at:


13.2.1 What is NETSERV

   NETSERV is a server, which allows fast access to data files and
   programs of interest to the EARN/Bitnet community. NETSERV provides a
   file repository consisting of information files and programs. It
   allows users to retrieve files, to store files and to subscribe to
   the files of their choice. The latter two functions however, require

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   that the user have a password for NETSERV (this is called a
   privileged user).

   In order to achieve a balanced load on the network and a faster
   response time to users, NETSERV uses a distributed server concept:
   this is achieved by the installation of a large number of servers on
   the network to ensure that the user can locate a nearby server. All
   servers communicate with each other to distribute updated information
   and make it available from each copy of the server.

   NETSERV's file server functions include retrieving any file present
   in its filelists, storing new versions of a file, and subscribing to
   files stored on the server. Its file directories are arranged in an
   hierarchical method, with NETSERV FILELIST being on top or at the
   root of the filelists. This filelist can be obtained by sending a GET
   NETSERV FILELIST command to any NETSERV. Filelists contain short
   descriptions of the files, and two access codes for each file. These
   codes represent the get and put privileges required for that file.
   These codes are explained at the beginning of the NETSERV FILELIST

13.2.2 How to get to NETSERV

   The server is available in almost every country. To find the closest
   server for your area send a QUERY SERVICE command to a server. The
   following are examples of NETSERV server addresses:

   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |

   In EARN, there is only one NETSERV permitted for one country.
   However, in some limited cases, such as when the country has a large
   number of nodes, additional servers may be installed. In any case,
   the user is not required to run NETSERV to be able to access and use
   the server.

   NETSERV accepts e-mail access from users on any network. Commands to
   NETSERV should be placed in the body of the mail file, and not in the
   Subject: line.

   For users in the EARN/Bitnet network, NETSERV is accessible via
   interactive message. Commands from privileged users requiring a
   password must be sent this way.

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   NETSERV does not have delivery limitations, except that a file
   ordered from NETSERV cannot be ordered again on the same day.

13.2.3. Learning more about NETSERV

   The server provides a large helpfile  which can be obtained by
   sending a GET NETSERV HELPFILE command to any NETSERV.

   A list for NETSERV maintainers is available as

   Additional information can be obtained from the NETSERV maintainer,
   Ulrich Giese at U001212@HEARN.NIC.SURFNET.NL (or


13.3.1. What is MAILBASE

   MAILBASE is an electronic information service with much of the same
   functionality as LISTSERV. It allows United Kingdom groups to manage
   their own discussion topics (Mailbase lists) and associated files.
   The Mailbase service is run as part of the JANET Networked
   Information Services Project (NISP) based at Newcastle University.

13.3.2. How to get to MAILBASE

   Commands should be sent in an electronic mail message to More than one command may appear in a
   message to Mailbase. Commands may be in any order, in UPPER, lower,
   or MiXeD case.

13.3.3 Learning more about MAILBASE

   For a summary of Mailbase commands, send the command help in an
   e-mail message to For a list of on-line
   documentation about Mailbase, send the command: index mailbase.

   You can then use the send command to retrieve those documents that
   interest you. E.g., to retrieve a file of frequently asked questions,
   send the following command: send mailbase user-faq.

   User support is also available by sending queries in an e-mail
   message to:

   Public files on Mailbase are also available by anonymous FTP to

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13.4.1. What is PROSPERO

   PROSPERO is a distributed file system. It differs from traditional
   distributed file systems in several ways. In traditional file
   systems, the mapping of names to files is the same for all users.
   Prospero supports user centered naming: users construct customized
   views of the files that are accessible. A virtual system defines this
   view and controls the mapping from names to files. Objects may be
   organized in multiple ways and the same object may appear in
   different virtual systems, or even with multiple names in the same
   virtual system.

   In Prospero, the global file system consists of a collection of
   virtual file systems. Virtual file systems usually start as a copy of
   a prototype. The root contains links to files or directories selected
   by the user.

   The Prospero file system provides tools that make it easier to keep
   track of and organize information in large systems. When first
   created, your virtual file system is likely to contain links to
   directories that organize information in different ways. As the
   master copy of each of these directories is updated, you will see the
   changes. You may customize these directories. The changes you make to
   a customized directory are only seen from within your own virtual
   system, but changes made to the master copy will also be visible to

   Users are encouraged to organize their own projects and papers in a
   manner that will allow them to be easily added to the master
   directory.  For example, users should consider creating a virtual
   directory that contains pointers to copies of each of the papers that
   they want made available to the outside world. This virtual directory
   may appear anywhere in the user's virtual system. Once set up, a link
   may be added to the master author directory. In this manner, others
   will be able to find this directory. Once added to the master
   directory, any future changes will be immediately available to other

13.4.2. How to get to PROSPERO

   In order to use Prospero, you must be on the international TCP/IP
   network (the Internet) and you must have Prospero running on your

   Before you can begin using the Prospero file system a virtual system
   must be created for you. However, Prospero, as shipped, is configured

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   so that once you compile the clients you can type: vfsetup guest and
   start working right out of the box using a guest virtual system at
   the USC Information Sciences Institute.

   The latest version of PROSPERO is available as file prospero.tar.Z
   for anonymous FTP from in the directory

13.4.3. Learning more about PROSPERO

   Prospero is being developed by Clifford Newman. Several documents and
   articles describing Prospero by Newman and others are available.

   The following files are available via anonymous FTP from They are also available through Prospero.

        * Anonymous FTP: /pub/papers/prospero/,

        * Prospero:

   This is a useful first paper to read. It gives a good overview of
   Prospero and what it does. It also describes a bit about the Virtual
   System model, of which Prospero is a prototype implementation. It
   describes what Prospero does, not how it does it.

        * Anonymous FTP: /pub/papers/prospero/,

        * Prospero:

   This paper describes how Prospero can be used to integrate Internet
   information services, including Gopher, WAIS, archie, and World-Wide

13.5. IRC

13.5.1. What is IRC

   IRC, Internet Relay Chat, is a real-time conversational system. It is
   similar to the talk command which is available on many machines in
   the Internet. IRC does everything talk does, but it allows more than
   2 users to talk at once, with access throughout the global Internet.
   It also provides many other useful features.

   IRC is networked over much of North America, Europe, and Asia. When
   you are talking in IRC, everything you type will instantly be
   transmitted around the world to other users who are connected at the

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   time. They can then type something and respond to your messages.

   Topics of discussion on IRC are varied. Technical and political
   discussions are popular, especially when world events are in
   progress.  IRC is also a way to expand your horizons, as people from
   many countries and cultures are on, 24 hours a day. Most
   conversations are in English, but there are always channels in
   German, Japanese, and Finnish, and occasionally other languages.

13.5.2. How to get to IRC

   Clients and servers for IRC are available via anonymous FTP from A few sites offer public access to IRC via Telnet. Two
   such sites are and At both sites,
   you should log in as irc.

   The many server hosts of Internet Relay Chat throughout the network
   are connected via a tree structure. The various servers relay control
   and message data among themselves to advertise the existence of other
   servers, users, and the channels and other resources being occupied
   by those users.

   Fundamental to the operation of IRC is the concept of a channel. All
   users are on a channel while inside IRC. You enter the null channel
   first. You cannot send any messages until you enter a chatting
   channel, unless you have set up a private conversation in some way.
   The number of channels is essentially unlimited.

13.5.3. Learning more about IRC

   To get help while in IRC, type /help and follow the instructions.

   If you have problems, you can contact Christopher Davis (
   or Helen Rose ( - known on IRC as ckd and Trillian,
   respectively. You can also ask for help on some of the operator
   channels on IRC, for example #twilight_zone and #eu-opers.

   Various documents on IRC, and the archives of IRC-related mailing
   lists, are available via anonymous FTP from

13.6. RELAY

13.6.1. What is RELAY

   The RELAY server system is a set of servers in the global EARN/Bitnet
   network which broadcast interactive messages from one user to other
   users signed on to the same channel of the RELAY system. A user
   signed on to the closest available RELAY is also virtually signed on

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   to all RELAYs which are linked to it. Most RELAYs are closed during
   peak hours.  Only some RELAYs are up 24 hours a day.

   Each RELAY server provides service to a specific collection of one or
   more nodes designated as a service area. The functions of RELAY are
   available to EARN/Bitnet users with access to interactive messages
   who have not been expressly excluded from the system by RELAY

   RELAY is a program which allows several people to talk at the same
   time.  In order to start, you must sign on to a RELAY to place your
   ID in the current user list. You communicate with RELAY through
   messages just as you would send messages to a user. RELAY commands
   start with a slash (/) character; anything not beginning with a slash
   is considered a message and is sent back out to all other current

13.6.2. How to get to RELAY

   RELAY is available at the following EARN/Bitnet addresses, and
   others.  The nickname of the RELAY machine is in parentheses.

   |                                                               |
   |  RELAY@ASUACAD    (Sun_Devils)   RELAY@PURCCVM  (Purdue)      |
   |  RELAY@AUVM       (Wash_DC)      RELAY@SEARN    (Stockholm)   |
   |  RELAY@BEARN      (Belgium)      RELAY@TAMVM1   (Aggieland)   |
   |  RELAY@BNANDP11   (Namur)        RELAY@TAUNIVM  (Israel)      |
   |  RELAY@CEARN      (Geneva)       RELAY@TECMTYVM (Monterrey)   |
   |  RLY@CORNELLC     (Ithaca_NY)    RELAY@TREARN   (EgeRelay     |
   |  RELAY@CZHRZU1A   (Zurich)       MASRELAY@UBVM  (Buffalo)     |
   |  RELAY@DEARN      (Germany)      RELAY@UFRJ     (RioJaneiro)  |
   |  RELAY@DKTC11     (Copenhagen)   RELAY@UIUCVMD  (Urbana_IL)   |
   |  RELAY@FINHUTC    (Finland)      RELAY@USCVM    (LosAngeles)  |
   |  RELAY@GITVM1     (Atlanta)      RELAY@UTCVM    (Tennessee)   |
   |  RELAY@GREARN     (Hellas)       RELAY@UWAVM    (Seattle)     |
   |  RELAY@HEARN      (Holland)      RELAY@VILLVM   (Philadelph)  |
   |  RELAY@ITESMVF1   (Mexico)       RELAY@VMTECQRO (Queretaro)   |
   |  RELAY@JPNSUT00   (Tokyo)        RELAY@VTBIT    (Va_Tech)     |
   |  RELAY@NDSUVM1    (No_Dakota)    RELAY@WATDCS   (Waterloo)    |
   |  RELAY@NYUCCVM    (NYU)          RELAY@YALEVM   (Yale)        |
   |                                                               |

   RELAY is available to users on the EARN/Bitnet network via
   interactive message (e.g., the TELL command of VM or the SEND command
   of VMS/JNET).  All RELAY server machines are on IBM VM/CMS systems,
   but you do not have to be a VM user in order to use RELAY. If you are

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   not in the EARN/Bitnet network, you can not use RELAY.

   CHAT, a full-screen interface to send and receive TELL messages for
   VM systems, is particularly useful for users of RELAY. CHAT is
   available from any NETSERV.

13.6.3. Learning more about RELAY

   Upon registration, the files RELAY INFO and RELAY USERGUIDE are sent
   to the user. These two files give a comprehensive description of

   A  brief  guide  to  RELAY  is available  from  the  EARN
   documentation filelist. Send mail to LISTSERV@EARNCC.EARN.NET (or
   LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET). In the body of the message, write: GET RELAY

14. Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

15. References

   Blue Book, Volume VIII - Fascicle VIII.8, Data Communication Networks
   Directory, Recommendations X.500-X.521, CCITT, 1988, ISBN 92-61-

   Schwartz, M., and P. Tsirigotis, "Experience with a Semantically
   Cognizant Internet White Pages Directory Tool", Journal of
   Internetworking Research and Experience, March 1991, pp. 23-50.

   Kantor, B., and P. Lapsley, "Network News Transfer Protocol: A
   Proposed Standard for the Stream-Based Transmission of News", RFC
   977, UC San Diego & UC Berkeley, February 1986.

   Horton, M., and R. Adams, "Standard for interchange of USENET
   messages", RFC 1036, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Center for Seismic
   Studies, December 1987.

   Lang, R., and R. Wright, "A Catalog of Available X.500
   Implementations", FYI 11, RFC 1292, SRI International, Lawrence
   Berkeley Laboratory, January 1992.

   Weider, C., and J. Reynolds, "Executive Introduction to Directory
   Services Using the X.500 Protocol", FYI 13, RFC 1308, ANS, ISI, March

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   Weider, C., Reynolds, J., and S. Heker, "Technical Overview of
   Directory Services Using the X.500 Protocol", FYI 14, RFC 1309, ANS,
   ISI, JvNC, March 1992.

   Williamson, S., "Transition and Modernization of the Internet
   Registration Service", RFC 1400, Network Solutions, Inc., March 1993.

16. Acknowledgements

   The work of many people is reflected here, but we owe our greatest
   debt of thanks to the developers and authors of the network tools and
   documentation. Their work serves as the basis for this guide.

17. Author's Address

   EARN Staff
   Daniele Bovio
   Ulrich Giese
   Nadine Grange
   Turgut Kalfaoglu
   Greg Lloyd
   David Sitman
   EARN Office
   PSI - Batiment 211
   91405 Orsay CEDEX

   Phone: +33 1 6941 2426
   Fax: +33 1 6941 6683

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18. Appendix A - Freely available networking software

   Below you will find the location of client software for several of
   the tools described in this guide (Gopher, WWW, WAIS and Netnews).
   This is not a complete listing of available software for any of these

18.1 Gopher clients

Environment   FTP site & directory     Comments



               XGOPHER_CLIENT.SHARE    for Wollongong or UCX





               /pub/gopher/Macintosh    requires MacTCP

               /util/gopher/gopherapp   requires MacTCP


               /pub/gopher/PC_client    requires packet driver

               /public/dos/misc         dosgopher, for PC/TCP

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               /nfs/gopher.exe          for PC-NFS

               /dos/gopher              for LAN Workplace for DOS

               /pub/micro/pc-stuff/ms-windows/winsock/apps  Gopherbook

               /pub/gopher/Unix         xgopher (Athena widgets)

               /pub/gopher/Unix         moog (Motif)

               /pub/gopher/Unix/xvgopher     or Xview


18.2. World-Wide Web clients

Environment   FTP site & directory     Comments

               /pub/www/src            WWW line-mode browser

               /pub/WWW/lynx           Lynx browser for vt100 terminals

               /pub/w3browser          tty-based browser written in perl

               /pub/www/bin/vms        port of NCSA Mosaic for X

               /pub/www/bin/mac        requires MacTCP

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MS-Windows    Cello


               /pub/www/src            tkWWW Browser/Editor

               /pub/www/src            MidasWWW Browser for X/Motif

               /pub/www/src            ViolaWWW Browser for X11

               /Web                    NCSA Mosaic Browser for X11/Motif

               /pub/www/bin/next       Browser and Editor

18.3. WAIS clients

Environment   FTP site & directory     Comments

               /pub/freeware/unix-src  swais






               /pub/tcpip              PCWAIS

               /pub/freeware/windows   WNWAIS

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               /pub/freeware/unix-src  gwais

               /pub/freeware/unix-src  xwais


18.4. Netnews - news reader software

Environment   FTP site                 Name & Comments

Unix              rn also available via e-mail to:






VM/CMS            NetNews
                                       also available from LISTSERV@PSUVM




Macintosh            News

MS-DOS          Trumpet

MS-Windows          WTrumpet

X-Windows     many FTP sites           xrn


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Emacs         most GNU sites           GNUS
                                       for use with GNU Emacs editor

              most GNU sites           Gnews
                                       for use with GNU Emacs editor