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RFC 1580

 
 
 

Guide to Network Resource Tools

Part 3 of 4, p. 53 to 87
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8. NETFIND

8.1. What is NETFIND

   NETFIND is an Internet user directory tool. It provides a simple
   Internet white pages directory facility.

   Given the name of a person on the Internet and a rough description of
   where the person works, Netfind attempts to locate telephone and
   electronic mailbox information about the person. It does so using a
   seed database of domains and hosts in the network.

   Netfind finds information about people through the Internet protocols
   SMTP and finger. If the person being sought is at a site that is not
   directly connected to the Internet (e.g., the site is connected only

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   through a mail forwarding gateway), Netfind informs the user that the
   person can not be found.

   Due to the dynamic nature of Netfind's search procedures and
   variations in Internet availability, different results can be
   obtained for the same search on different occasions.

   The Netfind software can only run on Suns running SunOS 4.0 or more
   recent.

8.2. Who can use NETFIND

   You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) in
   order to use Netfind. Moreover, Netfind can only find information on
   users who are on the Internet.

   There is no e-mail access to Netfind.

8.3. How to get to NETFIND

   You can access Netfind through software at your site (local access),
   or you can use Telnet to access it at one of the following hosts
   (remote access) and log in as netfind, no password is needed.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  Host                            Country                      |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |  archie.au                       Australia                    |
   |  netfind.anu.edu.au              Australia                    |
   |  netfind.ee.mcgill.ca            Canada                       |
   |  malloco.ing.puc.cl              Chile                        |
   |  netfind.vslib.cz                Czech Republic               |
   |  monolith.cc.ic.ac.uk            England                      |
   |  nic.nm.kr                       Korea                        |
   |  lincoln.technet.sg              Singapore                    |
   |  nic.uakom.sk                    Slovakia                     |
   |  bruno.cs.colorado.edu           USA                          |
   |  ds.internic.net                 USA                          |
   |  mudhoney.micro.umn.edu          USA                          |
   |  netfind.oc.com                  USA                          |
   |  redmont.cis.uab.edu             USA                          |
   |  dino.conicit.ve                 Venezuela                    |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

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8.4. Using NETFIND

   To use Netfind, you give it the name of a person and keywords
   indicating where that person works. After you specify a search,
   Netfind looks in its seed database to find domains matching the
   specified keywords. If there is more than one matching domain,
   Netfind displays the list of matching domains, and asks you to select
   up to three to search. If the keys you specified match more than 100
   domains, Netfind will list some of the matching domains/organizations
   and ask you to form a more specific search. You can use any of the
   parts of an organization's name (or any of the components of its
   domain name) as keys in searches. Using more than one key implies the
   logical AND of the keys. Specifying too many keys may cause searches
   to fail.

   When it completes the search (or when interrupted by <circ>C),
   Netfind summarizes the search results. The summary includes problems
   searching remote domains, information about the most promising e-mail
   address for the person being sought (if available), and information
   about when and where the person most recently/is currently logged in
   (if available).  If more than one person is located by a search, the
   summary does not include information about e-mail targets and most
   recent/current logins (since only the user can decide which person
   was the correct one)

   8.4.1. Local access:

      The format of the Netfind command is:

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  netfind   <options>  name-keyword  place-keywords            |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      where the options are:

      -h
         tells Netfind to skip the domain search phase, and immediately
         begin searching individual machines found in the seed database.
         This option exists for measurement purposes. It is not of much
         use to casual users.

      -s
         will disable usage of the SMTP protocol during searches. This
         option is mainly useful for measurement purposes. Without this
         protocol, searches will begin producing finger output slightly
         sooner, but will often search less useful machines, generate

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         more Internet load, and fail to find information for users at
         sites that do not support finger (such as many companies).

      -t
         will report how many timeouts occurred. The -T option will set
         the timeout interval to the specified number of seconds. It may
         be necessary to use this option to increase the timeout value
         for intercontinental searches.

      -D
         sets the maximum number of domains that Netfind will search at
         once. The default is 3. While it may seem convenient to set a
         high value for this number, we suggest you do not do this. The
         search will actually proceed faster (and waste less Internet
         bandwidth) if a small number of well chosen domains are
         searched.

      -H
         sets the maximum number of machines that will be searched by
         Netfind.  The default value is 50. Again, we suggest that you
         do not set this value higher.

      -m
         displays measurement information. If no filename is specified,
         measurements are output to stderr. The packet count estimates
         are usually exaggerated, because they make pessimistic
         assumptions about the state of the Domain Naming System.

      -d
         allows you to turn on various classes of debugging output (all
         of which are output to stderr), using a letter corresponding to
         each one.  Debugging output is enabled using the -d option with
         a list of letters, e.g., -dslf. The following classes/letters
         exist:

         c:
            display control messages (check if the program has reached a
            specified point)

            f: display finger related messages

         h:
            list machine names found in the seed database

         l:
            display lock related messages (when entering monitors)

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         m:
            display messages about mail protocol (SMTP)

         n:
            display messages about network failures

         r:
            display hosts matched from the seed database that were
            rejected from searches because of search scope selection

         s:
            display system call related messages

         t:
            display thread related messages

         A:
            convert the above flags to mean their complement (example
            -dAt means produce all debug output except that for
            threads).

         The letters that are most likely to be of interest to the
         casual user are f, m, and n. By default, these options are
         enabled. Specifying any of these three flags with -d on the
         command line will disable them (hence, the -d option toggles
         the default behavior of each of the flags).

         The name keyword specifies the person being sought by first,
         last, or login name (only one name can be specified).

         The place keywords describe where the person works, by either
         the name of the institution or the city/state/country. If you
         know the institution's domain name (e.g., cs.colorado.edu,
         where there are host names like brazil.cs.colorado.edu) you can
         specify it as keys without the dots (e.g., cs colorado edu).
         The host parts of domain names (brazil) cannot be used as
         keywords. Keys are case insensitive and may be specified in any
         order, although using a very common key (like university) first
         will cause internal buffers to overflow and some domains to be
         missed.

         Using more than one key implies the logical and of the keys.
         Specifying too many keys may cause searches to fail. If this
         happens, try specifying fewer keys.

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   8.4.2. Remote access:

      Telnet to one of the remote Netfind sites (see How to get to
      NETFIND, above) and log in as netfind. No password is necessary.
      You will get the following menu:

           Top level choices:
                   1. Help
                   2. Search
                   3. Seed database lookup
                   4. Options
                   5. Quit (exit server)

      If you select Search, you will be given an opportunity to enter a
      name keyword and place keywords.

8.5. Examples

   To find the address of e-mail address of Nadine Grange, who works at
   the EARN office at CIRCE in France, you could try the keywords:

        nadine circe france

   Since there are more than three domains that fit the place keywords,
   you are asked to pick a few. The search proceeds, using the domains
   of your choice:

   -----------------------------------------------------------------

   Please select at most 3 of the following domains to search:
   0. circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, orsay ce
   1. ciripa.circe.fr (centre inter-regional de calcul electronique, c
   2. dnet.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, ors
   3. ibmmail.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique,
   4. obspm.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, or
   5. oecd.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, ors
   6. phy.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, orsa
   7. ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique, orsa
   8. cth.ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique,
   9. lure.ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifique,
   10. lps.cth.ups.circe.fr (centre national de la recherche scientifi

   Enter selection (e.g., 2 0 1) --> 0
   ( 1) check_name: checking domain circe.fr.  Level = 0
   Search of domains completed.  Proceeding to search of hosts.
   ( 3) check_name: checking host loire.circe.fr.  Level = 0
   ( 4) check_name: checking host solrt.circe.fr.  Level = 0
   ( 5) check_name: checking host groucho.circe.fr.  Level = 0

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   ( 1) check_name: checking host rsovax.circe.fr.  Level = 0
   ( 2) check_name: checking host ventura.circe.fr.  Level = 0
   ( 1) do_connect: Finger service not available on host rsovax.circe.
   ( 1) check_name: checking host earn-ng.circe.fr.  Level = 0
   ( 4) check_name: checking host luregate.circe.fr.  Level = 0
   SYSTEM: loire.circe.fr
     Login name: nadine                    In real life: Nadine Grange
     Directory: /home/nadine               Shell: /bin/csh
     On since Sep  7 08:48:05 on ttyp0     4 days 21 hours Idle Time
     New mail received Sun Sep 12 00:00:08 1993;
       unread since Fri Sep 10 11:53:17 1993
     No Plan.

     Login name: nadine                    In real life: Nadine Grange
     Directory: /home/nadine               Shell: /bin/csh
     On since Sep  7 09:17:09 on ttyp6     1 day 12 hours Idle Time

   SUMMARY:
   - "nadine" is currently logged in from
     loire.circe.fr, since Sep  7 09:17:09.
   - The most promising email address for "nadine"
     based on the above search is
     nadine@loire.circe.fr.

   ----------------------------------------------------------------

   Note that Netfind found only an Internet address on a Unix machine.

8.6. Learning more about NETFIND

   The remote access version of Netfind has a large Help section. There
   is also a set of frequently asked questions available with the
   software release, in the Doc directory. These questions cover
   Functionality, Methodology, Network and Remote Site Load, Privacy,
   Future Directions, and Related Work.

   A noteworthy article on Netfind is:

   Experience with a Semantically Cognizant Internet White Pages
   Directory Tool, by M. F. Schwartz and P. G. Tsirigotis, Journal of
   Internetworking Research and Experience, March 1991, pp. 23-50.

   This publication discusses the research principles, performance, and
   scope measurements of Netfind, and compares it with other white pages
   facilities.

   There is a mailing list for Netfind users (for software updates and
   other discussions). To be added to the list, send an e-mail message

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   to netfind-users-request@cs.colorado.edu with the body (not subject
   line) subscribe netfind-users

9. TRICKLE

9.1. What is TRICKLE

   TRICKLE is a service which will send you files on request or by
   subscription. TRICKLE works with various anonymous FTP sites
   (computers in the Internet network that allow public access and
   retrieval of software and files). It provides a quick and easy
   alternative to FTP, whether or not you have access to the Internet.

   There are several TRICKLE servers throughout the world that cooperate
   to distribute the files efficiently. To request files, the user
   issues commands to the nearest TRICKLE server, which delivers the
   software either from its local cache disk, from the cache of another
   TRICKLE server, or from an FTP site that holds the software.

9.2. Who can use TRICKLE

   There are currently TRICKLE servers at the following addresses:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  Location    EARN/BITNET        Internet                      |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |  Austria     TRICKLE@AWIWUW11   TRICKLE@awiwuw11.wu-wien.ac.at|
   |  Colombia    TRICKLE@UNALCOL    TRICKLE@unalcol.unal.edu.co   |
   |  France      TRICKLE@FRMOP11    TRICKLE@frmop11.cnusc.fr      |
   |  Germany     TRICKLE@DEARN      TRICKLE@vm.gmd.de             |
   |  Israel      TRICKLE@TAUNIVM    TRICKLE@vm.tau.ac.il          |
   |  Italy       TRICKLE@IMIPOLI    TRICKLE@imipoli.cdc.polimi.it |
   |  Netherlands TRICKLE@HEARN      TRICKLE@hearn.nic.surfnet.nl  |
   |  Poland      TRICKLE@PLEARN     TRICKLE@plearn.edu.pl         |
   |  Sweden      TRICKLE@SEARN      TRICKLE@searn.sunet.se        |
   |  Turkey      TRICKLE@TREARN     TRICKLE@ege.edu.tr            |
   |  Turkey      TRICKLE@TRMETU     TRICKLE@3090.cc.metu.edu.tr   |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   When you send a command to a TRICKLE server, it either executes the
   command or sends you a message with the address of the TRICKLE server
   for your area.

   The files which are available from TRICKLE are organized in main
   directories which contain many subdirectories. The main directories

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   which are currently available are:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   | Directory Source FTP Site        Contents                     |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   | MSDOS     oak.oakland.edu        Large MS-DOS software archive|
   | MISC      oak.oakland.edu        Software for VM, VMS, Unix   |
   | SIGM      oak.oakland.edu        SIG/M CP/M archive           |
   | PC-BLUE   oak.oakland.edu        PC-BLUE MS-DOS archive       |
   | CPM       oak.oakland.edu        CP/M software archive        |
   | ARCHIVES  oak.oakland.edu        Various discussion group arc.|
   | UNIX-C    oak.oakland.edu        Unix and C code software arc.|
   | MACINTOS  oak.oakland.edu        Apple Macintosh software arc.|
   | OS2       2tp-os2.nmsu.edu       Large archive of OS/2 sw     |
   | AMIGA     nic.funet.fi           Large Amiga collection       |
   | KERMIT    watsun.cc.columbia.edu Kermit network software      |
   | TEX       rusinfo.rus.uni-stuttgart.de TeX software and fonts |
   | WUARCHIVE wuarchive.wustl.edu    MS-DOS and others            |
   | EXPO-MIT  export.lcs.mit.edu     Unix and others              |
   | UUNET     ftp.uu.net             Unix and others              |
   | SUMEX-AIM sumex-aim.stanford.edu Macintosh and others         |
   | GARFIELD  garfield.catt.ncsu.edu Multimedia (pictures/sounds) |
   | X11       export.lcs.mit.edu     X-Windows software distrib.  |
   | LINUX     nic.funet.fi           Linux system software dist.  |
   | VM-CMS    ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu    VM/CMS utilities             |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   Not all directories are available at all servers. If your closest
   server does not provide the directory of your choice, you can use any
   other TRICKLE for the missing directory. If your closest server is
   temporarily unavailable, you can use any other TRICKLE instead.

9.3. How to get to TRICKLE

   You send commands to TRICKLE by electronic mail. The commands should
   be in the body of the mail message, one command per line. Any number
   of commands (up to your daily command limit) may be placed in one
   message.  Users on the EARN/Bitnet network may also send commands to
   TRICKLE by interactive message.

9.4. Using TRICKLE

   All commands begin with a slash (/). Note that the angle brackets
   (<>) are part of the command, not an indication of an optional
   parameter.

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   Use the /PDDIR command to obtain directory listings.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  /PDDIR                                                       |
   |                                                               |
   |  /PDDIR    <dirname>                                          |
   |                                                               |
   |  /PDDIR    <dirname.subdirname>pattern                        |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   dirname
      is the name of a main directory,

   subdirname
      is the name of a subdirectory,

   pattern
      is part of a filename.

   Use /PDDIR without any parameters to get a listing of the main
   directories. With PDDIR <dirname> you will get a listing of the
   subdirectories under that directory. If you specify both directory
   and subdirectory, it will list the files that are available in that
   subdirectory. With pattern, you will get a listing of only those
   files that match or begin with that pattern. Wildcards "?" and "*"
   may be imbedded into subdirname and pattern ("?" matches any single
   character; "*" matches any number of characters).

   Use the /PDGET command to get files.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  /PDGET    <dirname.subdirname>filename ( delivery-option     |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   dirname
      is the name of a main directory,

   subdirname
      is the name of a subdirectory,

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   filename
      is the name of a file.

   delivery-option
      specifies the format to which the file(s) should be translated
      before being sent to you. The possible values are:

           EBC80  UUE  XXE  HEX  BTOA

      The option EBC80 should be used to get text files if you work on
      an IBM mainframe system. The other options are formats for
      translating binary files so that they can be sent via electronic
      mail. You will need a program to translate the file back to its
      original form. The default for EARN/Bitnet users is to send the
      file as-is. The default for others is UUE.

   Wildcards "?" and "*" may be imbedded into subdirname and filename
   ("?" matches any single character; "*" matches any number of
   characters) to get several files.

   The /SUB command is used to subscribe to directories or to individual
   files.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  /SUB      <dirname>                                          |
   |                                                               |
   |  /SUB      <dirname.subdirname>pattern                        |
   |                                                               |
   |  /SUB      QUERY                                              |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   dirname
      is the name of a main directory,

   subdirname
      is the name of a subdirectory,

   pattern
      is part of a filename.

   If you subscribe to a directory, you will get a summary of added
   files about once a week, depending on how active the FTP site is.
   This listing shows the names, sizes and dates of each file added. If
   you subscribe to a file, as soon as TRICKLE is informed that a new

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   version of the file has been stored at its FTP site, a copy of the
   file will be sent to you.

   Note that since filenames usually reflect the version number of the
   file, it is a good idea to omit the number when specifying a pattern.
   For example, it is better to send the command:

        /SUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>SCANV

   rather than

        /SUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>SCANV106

   since, as new versions of the file are stored, the name might change
   to SCANV107, SCANV108, etc.

   Wildcards are not allowed with the /SUB command.

   The /SUB QUERY command allows you to get a list of the files you are
   subscribed to.

   The /UNSUB command may be used to cancel a subscription.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  /UNSUB    <dirname>                                          |
   |                                                               |
   |  /UNSUB    <dirname.subdirname>pattern                        |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   dirname
      is the name of a main directory,

   subdirname
      is the name of a subdirectory,

   pattern
      is part of a filename.

   The command /UNSUB * may be used to terminate all your directory and
   file subscriptions.

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9.5. Examples

   For a listing of the files in the VIRUS subdirectory of (the MSDOS
   directory, send the command:

        /PDDIR <MSDOS.VIRUS>

   To get the file 00-INDEX.TXT from <MSDOS.VIRUS> in EBCDIC format,
   send the command:

        /PDGET <MSDOS.VIRUS>00-INDEX.TXT ( EBC80

   If you are not sure of the exact name of the file, you can use
   wildcards:

        /PDGET <MSDOS.VIR*>*INDEX* ( EBC80

   To subscribe to  automatically get new versions of the  SCANV
   software from <MSDOS.VIRUS>, send the command:

        /SUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>SCANV

   To unsubscribe from all files in the VIRUS subdirectory, send the
   command:

        /UNSUB <MSDOS.VIRUS>*

9.6. Learning more about TRICKLE

   The /HELP command may be sent to any TRICKLE server to obtain a very
   detailed help file from the server.

   A brief guide to TRICKLE is available from the EARN documentation
   filelist. Send mail to LISTSERV@EARNCC.EARN.NET (or
   LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET). In the body of the message, write:

        GET TRICKLE MEMO

10. BITFTP

10.1. What is BITFTP

   BITFTP, BITNET FTP Server, allows users of EARN, Bitnet and
   associated networks to access FTP sites on the Internet.

   The BITFTP server provides a mail interface between a user on the
   EARN/Bitnet network to FTP sites on the Internet. BITFTP handles this
   task by passing the commands specified in the mail message from the

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   user to another server that actually makes the connection to the FTP
   sites.  When the server finishes the interaction with the FTP site,
   or fails due to an error, a transcript of the result is sent back to
   the user, as well as the requested file(s), if any.

   The format of the files sent to the user can be defined within the
   mail message. BITFTP can deliver files in netdata and uuencode
   formats.

10.2. Who can use BITFTP

   BITFTP is currently available only to users on EARN, Bitnet and other
   regional NJE networks. BITFTP does not support multiple file requests
   via the mget command nor does it support sending files to FTP sites
   (the put command).

10.3. How to get to BITFTP

   There are BITFTP servers currently running at:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  BITFTP@DEARN.BITNET  or  BITFTP@VM.GMD.DE           Germany  |
   |  BITFTP@PUCC.BITNET   or  BITFTP@PUCC.PRINCETON.EDU  USA      |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   Users on the EARN/Bitnet international network only may use the US
   server. Only users from EARN member countries may use the server in
   Germany. Servers at other locations are planned.

   BITFTP accepts requests via electronic mail, including IBM NOTE and
   PROFS-format messages, as well as by NJE file transfer.

10.4. Using BITFTP

   BITFTP implements a large subset of the FTP commands of the IBM's
   TCP/IP for VM, using the same syntax. This software is documented in
   the IBM manual TCP/IP for VM User's Guide. In the following, angle
   brackets (<>) indicate an optional parameter.

   Use the ftp command to specify which host to connect to. This command
   must be the first command in your mail file. You can also specify the
   file format that you wish BITFTP to use to deliver files to you.

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   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  ftp       hostname <fileformat>                              |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   hostname
      is either the IP address or the domain name of the host to connect
      to,

   fileformat
      is the format in which BITFTP should deliver files to you. It can
      be either netdata or uuencode.

   Use the user command to tell the host the username and the password
   to be used for the FTP connection. Note that on many FTP sites, both
   username and password are case-sensitive.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  user      username password                                  |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   username
      is the user-id to use for the FTP connection,

   password
      is the password for the username you specified. It can be omitted
      if you specified anonymous for the userid.

   Use the  cd command to select  a particular directory  as current
   directory.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  cd        directory-name                                     |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   directory-name
      is the name of the directory to be selected.

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   Use the dir command to display a list of the files in the current, or
   specified, directory. The file names, and depending on the site, the
   file size, file creation date and other information will be listed.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  dir       <pattern>                                          |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   pattern
      is a pattern that defines which file names should be displayed.
      Many FTP sites are case-sensitive, thus care must be used with the
      pattern. The pattern may contain any number of characters, and the
      wildcard character "*" (asterisk) may be used to represent any
      characters.

   The ls command is similar to the dir command, except that with most
   FTP sites, it only displays the filenames, without any other
   information.  The pattern specification is identical to dir.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  ls        <pattern>                                          |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   Use the get command to obtain a file from the current host.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  get       foreignname <localname>                            |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

   foreignname
      is the filename of the file, as stored at the FTP site. With many
      sites, the case of the filename must be respected.

   localname
      is an optional local filename. If you specify a localname, it must
      be in the form:  filename.filetype where neither part is  longer
      than eight characters.

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   Use the binary command to set the FTP transfer mode. If this option
   is set then no EBCDIC-ASCII translation will take place. This should
   be used for non-text files.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  binary                                                       |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   Use the quit command to close the connection to the host, and to
   terminate the BITFTP session.

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |  quit                                                         |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

10.5. Examples

   To get the file how.to.ftp.guide from the directory
   /pub/nic/network.service.guides at the anonymous FTP site
   nic.sura.net, and to get a listing of the files in that directory,
   you could send the following commands by e-mail to BITFTP:

        ftp nic.sura.net
        user anonymous
        cd pub/nic/network.service.guides
        get how.to.ftp.guide
        dir
        quit

   In response you will receive an e-mail containing the following lines
   (some lines have been removed for brevity):

   > ftp nic.sura.net
   > user anonymous
   >> OPEN NIC.SURA.NET
   >> USER anonymous

   > cd pub/nic/network.service.guides
   >> CD pub/nic/network.service.guides

   > get how.to.ftp.guide
   >>>> "how.to.ftp.guide" sent as "HOWTO FTPGUIDE".

   > dir

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   total 60
   -rw-rw-r--  1 mtaranto 120   344 Apr 14  1992 README
   -rw-rw-r--  1 mtaranto 120 12759 Oct 30  1992 how.to.email.guide
   -rw-rw-r--  1 mtaranto 120  6327 Mar 24 13:28 how.to.ftp.guide
   -rw-rw-r--  1 root     120  2818 Mar  4  1992 how.to.telnet.guide
   -rw-rw-r--  1 mtaranto 120  6136 Oct 30  1992 how.to.use.vi.guide
   -rw-r--r--  1 1086     120     0 Aug 18 21:23 plane.

   The above directory listing is typical of the format of Unix FTP
   sites.  There is information on file permissions and ownership as
   well as the size of the file in bytes, the time and date of its last
   change, and the file name.

   You could request the first two files by once again sending mail to
   BITFTP with the following commands:

        ftp nic.sura.net
        user anonymous
        cd pub/nic/network.service.guides
        get README
        get how.to.email.guide
        quit

10.6. Learning more about BITFTP

   A four-page instruction to the BITFTP service can be obtained by
   sending a help command in the body of a mail message to either BITFTP
   server.

   Additional information on BITFTP may be obtained from EARN
   (NETHELP@EARNCC.EARN.NET or NETHELP@EARNCC.BITNET). More information
   about TCP/IP and FTP in general can be obtained from a wide variety
   of sources, such as the documents mentioned in the example above.

11. LISTSERV (Version 1.7f)

11.1. What is LISTSERV

   LISTSERV is a distribution list management package. It runs on IBM
   VM/CMS systems in the international NJE network (EARN/ Bitnet). It
   allows groups of computer users with a common interest to communicate
   among themselves, while making efficient use of computer and network
   resources. It makes it easy for even novice users to discover, join,
   and participate in these interest group mailing lists. LISTSERV also
   provides facilities for logging and archiving of mail traffic, file
   server functions, and database searches of archives and files.

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   There are LISTSERV lists on every subject under the sun, with names
   ranging from AARPUB-L (AAR Electronic Publication list) to Z3950IW
   (Z39.50 Implementors Workshop). LISTSERV lists are international and
   eclectic. You will find lists in every imaginable field, for every
   audience, in many different countries and in many different
   languages.  See the description of the List command in the section
   Using LISTSERV section for instructions on getting an up-to-date list
   of lists.

11.2. Who can use LISTSERV

   Anyone who can send electronic mail to an EARN/Bitnet address can
   participate in a mailing list and access other LISTSERV facilities,
   as long as the e-mail format is valid (according to the RFC822
   standard), and has a usable return address. Every day, people use
   LISTSERV from HEPnet, Internet, Compuserve, MCIMail and many other
   networks throughout the world.

   If you don't know how to send electronic mail to EARN/Bitnet, ask
   your local support people for help.

11.3. How to get to LISTSERV

   To use LISTSERV facilities, send electronic mail with your LISTSERV
   commands to: LISTSERV@host-id where host-id is the host computer's
   NJE address (for example, TAUNIVM.BITNET) or its Internet domain name
   (in this case, VM.TAU.AC.IL). There may be some local variation on
   the format needed to send mail to Bitnet or Internet addresses. Check
   with your local support personnel.

   More than one command can be sent to LISTSERV in the same mail
   message.  Each command must be on a separate line. LISTSERV will
   ignore the Subject: line of the mail header, so ensure that your
   commands are in the body of the e-mail.

   For EARN/Bitnet users, interactive messages are the fastest and most
   convenient way to send commands to LISTSERV, but bear in mind that
   interactive messages only work when the links between your computer
   and LISTSERV are up; if the message fails, you can always send your
   command via mail.

   To facilitate communications with the LISTSERV servers on the
   EARN/Bitnet network, a special LISTSERV computer node has been
   defined.  This means that any EARN/Bitnet user can address their
   commands to the userid LISTSERV at the special node LISTSERV.

   All non-EARN/Bitnet users may address their command mail to the
   userid LISTSERV at the special node LISTSERV.NET. Note that if this

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   node is not yet defined on your network, you may also try
   LISTSERV%LISTSERV.BITNET@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU. For example, if you wanted
   to join the 3D-L mailing list that discusses 3D computer graphics but
   are not sure of the address of the LISTSERV server hosting this list.
   You could send a subscription request to either of the following
   addresses:

        LISTSERV@LISTSERV.NET
        LISTSERV@LISTSERV (on BITNET)


   Your subscription request will be automatically forwarded on to the
   LISTSERV server hosting the 3D-L mailing list (in this case, at the
   computer node ARIZVM1 or ARIZVM1.CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU).

   You may also utilize the special LISTSERV address to send e-mail to
   any LISTSERV mailing list if you are unsure of its address. For
   example, if you wanted to send mail to the BITFTP-L mailing list to
   request a copy of the BITFTP product, you could do so by addressing
   your e-mail to BITFTP-L@LISTSERV.NET. It will automatically be
   forwarded to the list's real address (in this case,
   BITFTP-L@EARNCC.EARN.NET) when it reaches the LISTSERV node. Once you
   know the real address of a list, it should be used for all future
   mail sent to that list.

   There are more than 250 sites in over 30 countries throughout the
   world running LISTSERV as part of the world-wide network. Here are a
   few of the LISTSERV sites:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   | NJE     Domain                 Site                    Country|
   | Host    Address                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   | EARNCC  EARNCC.EARN.NET                                       |
   |                EARN Office, Paris                       France|
   | DEARN   VM.GMD.DE                                             |
   |                GMD, Bonn                               Germany|
   | HEARN   HEARN.NIC.SURFNET.NL                                  |
   |                Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen    Netherlands|
   | SEARN   SEARN.SUNET.SE                                        |
   |                Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm  Sweden|
   | BITNIC  BINTIC.CREN.NET                                       |
   |                BITNET Network Information Center           USA|
   | PUCC    PUCC.PRINCETON.EDU                                    |
   |                Princeton University, New Jersey            USA|
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

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11.4. Using LISTSERV

   The commands given here are available for everyone and require no
   special LISTSERV command privileges. Only the most common commands
   are described. For a complete list of non-privileged LISTSERV
   commands, retrieve the LISTSERV User Guide in the DOC FILELIST from
   LISTSERV@EARNCC.EARN.NET (or LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET).

   Commands are presented in a particular format: CAPITAL letters
   indicate acceptable abbreviation, angle brackets (<>) indicate an
   optional parameter, and vertical bar (|) indicates a choice of
   parameters. All parameters are fully explained in each command
   description.

   There is a standard set of command keywords available for use in some
   LISTSERV commands. They may be used with any commands where they
   appear as optional parameters in the command description. The
   important standard keywords are:

   PW= password
      This keyword is used to specify a password in a command. If you
      have registered a personal password on a LISTSERV server, you will
      then have to validate certain commands by using the PW= command
      keyword in the command text. This feature is designed to prevent
      impostors from issuing commands while using your e-mail address.
      The use of passwords is strongly recommended for this reason. See
      the PW command for details on registering personal passwords. Once
      you have registered a personal password at a LISTSERV server, you
      will be obliged to include the PW= command keyword in all commands
      where it appears as an option.

   F= format
      This keyword controls the file format (or internal file structure)
      in which files will be sent to you. If you are not a member of the
      EARN/Bitnet network, then LISTSERV will always use the default
      file format of MAIL. Otherwise, the default file format is
      dependent upon the information held in the BITEARN NODES file
      regarding your computer. The BITEARN NODES file is a special
      network definition file used in the EARN/Bitnet network. Any user
      may ask for a file format other than their default by specifying
      it in the F= command keyword in the commands where it appears as
      an option. Note that this will not permanently change your default
      file format, its effect is only for those commands where it is
      specified. Following is a list of file formats that are valid for
      all users:

           XXE  UUe  MIME/text  MIME/Appl  MAIL

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      In addition, EARN/Bitnet users may specify:

           Netdata  Card  Disk  Punch  LPunch  VMSdump

      Contact your local support personnel for more information about
      the file formats supported on your computer.

   11.4.1. Commands for LISTS:

      The primary function of LISTSERV is to operate mailing lists (also
      referred to as distribution lists). Mailing lists are used to
      distribute the e-mail sent to them to a list a recipients. They
      provide the means for a group of users to establish an e-mail
      forum on any topic or area of common interest. This service
      provides an extremely convenient means for the exchange of ideas
      and information between list members since LISTSERV (and not the
      mail sender) manages the distribution of e-mail to all of its
      final recipients. Users need only to remember one list address to
      which they send their mail in order to communicate to a
      potentially large number of users. Due to the efficiency with
      which LISTSERV distributes e-mail to list members, discussions or
      debates with a world-wide audience may be conducted.

      The following commands are designed for use with LISTSERV mailing
      lists.  With them you may do things such as finding the names and
      addresses of lists, signing on to or off lists, reviewing lists or
      changing your personal options for any mailing list to which you
      are subscribed.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  SUBscribe list-name  <full-name>                             |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use the SUBscribe command to join a mailing list. You can also use
      this command to alter the name (but not e-mail address) by which
      you are known on a mailing list you have already joined. The
      list-name parameter is the name of the list to which you want to
      subscribe. For example, the EARN User Group list located at the
      node IRLEARN has a list name of EARN-UG. Do not confuse this with
      the list's address (EARN-UG@IRLEARN) which should not be used. The
      optional full-name parameter allows you to give a name by which
      you want to be known on a mailing list. If specified, it should be
      your full, real name (at least your first name and last name) and
      not your e-mail address. If you send this command to LISTSERV via
      command mail, the name for the full-name option will be taken from
      the name given in the From: mail header should it be omitted from

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      the command text. If you send a SUBscribe command for a list to
      which you already belong, then LISTSERV will interpret the command
      as a request to change your full-name on the list.

      A request to join a mailing list can be processed in three ways:
      subscription to a list may be OPEN, CLOSED, or BY-OWNER. If it is
      OPEN, you will be automatically added to the list and sent
      notification. If it is CLOSED, you will not be added to the list,
      and LISTSERV will send you a message telling you that your request
      has been rejected. If it is BY-OWNER, your subscription request
      will be forwarded to the list owner(s), who will decide whether or
      not to add you to the list (LISTSERV will inform you to whom your
      request has been forwarded). To see what kind of subscription a
      list has, use the REView command.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  UNSubscribe list-name  |  *  <(NETWIDE>                      |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use the UNSubscribe command to leave a mailing list. The listname
      parameter is the name of a mailing list from which you want to
      remove your subscription. You can signoff all the lists to which
      you are a member at any particular LISTSERV site by using the "*"
      (asterisk) character in the place of a list name. If you want your
      UNSubscribe command to be propagated to all LISTSERV servers on
      the network, include the (NETWIDE option. Use this option if you
      are changing your e-mail address or are leaving your computer for
      an extended period.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  List      <options>  <F= format>                             |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use the List command to get a listing of available mailing lists
      at a LISTSERV server. The options parameter may be any of the
      following:

      Short
         This option displays a summary of all the lists managed by a
         LISTSERV in a brief, one line description. This is the default.

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      Long
         The Long (or Detailed) option will send a file (called
         node-name LISTS) to you that contains a comprehensive
         description of the lists managed by a LISTSERV server.

      Global <pattern>
         This option gives a complete list of all known LISTSERV mailing
         lists at all servers at the time the command is issued. A file
         (called LISTSERV LISTS) will be sent to you containing the
         names, titles and e-mail addresses of these lists. This is a
         very large file, so make sure you have the necessary disk space
         to accommodate its size before you use the Global option. The
         optional pattern parameter can be used to match any string in
         the list name, list title or list address.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  REView    list-name  <(>  <options>                          |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use the REView command to receive a listing of a mailing list. It
      will be sent to you as a file called list-name LIST (or list-name
      node-name for peered lists). A mailing list is comprised of two
      parts: a control section and a subscription section. The control
      section holds the definition parameters for a list which includes
      information such as who is authorized to review or join a list and
      whether or not it is archived. The subscription section holds the
      e-mail addresses and names of all list members. The REView command
      allows you to receive a listing of either or both of these
      sections (the default is both) for any list, provided you are
      authorized to do so. Note that at the discretion of the list
      owner(s), the REView command can be restricted in use to list
      members only. In this case, you will not be authorized to review a
      mailing list if you are not a member of that list yourself. Also,
      individual list members can restrict the appearance of their
      e-mail address and name in response to a REView command if they
      have set the CONCEAL mailing list option (see the SET command for
      more details). The list-name parameter is the name of the LISTSERV
      list you wish to review.  The important options are:

      Short
         This option restricts the information you receive to the
         control section of a list (giving its definition parameters)
         and does not return the subscription section of a list (giving
         the list members).

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      Countries
         If you use this option, the list of members will be by the
         nationality given in their e-mail.

      LOCal
         If the list is peered (that is, it is linked to other mailing
         lists of the same name but on different LISTSERV servers), you
         will receive listings of all of these mailing lists in response
         to a REView command.  The LOCal option can be used to suppress
         the propagation of the REView command to the LISTSERV servers
         hosting these peered mailing lists. In this case, you will
         receive a listing only from the server to which you send the
         REView command and not the others.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  Query     list-name  |  *                                    |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      When you join any mailing list, you will be assigned a default set
      of list options that control such things as way you received mail
      when it is distributed and the type of notification LISTSERV will
      give you when it distributes mail you have sent to a list. These
      are the personal list options that may be altered on any mailing
      list to which you are subscribed to suite your circumstances. See
      the SET command for a complete descriptions of these options. The
      Query command can be used to review the personal list options you
      have in effect at any mailing list.  The listname parameter is the
      name of a list to which you are subscribed. If you use an "*"
      (asterisk) character instead of a list name, you will receive
      information about your personal options for all lists to which you
      belong at the LISTSERV to which you send the command.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  SET       list-name  |  *   options                          |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use the SET command to change your personal options for a mailing
      list.  These options will remain in effect until they are
      explicitly changed.  The Query command can be used to display your
      current optional settings for any list to which you are
      subscribed. The list-name parameter is the name of the mailing
      list for which you are changing your options. You may change your
      options for a specific list or for all the lists you belong to at
      a particular LISTSERV by using the "*" (asterisk) character in

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      place of a list name. After processing your SET command, LISTSERV
      will send you conformation of the successful alteration of your
      mailing list options via e-mail. The important options are:

      Mail | DIGests | INDex | NOMail
         These options of the SET command alter the way in which you
         receive mail from a mailing list. The Mail option means that
         you wish to have list mail distributed to you as mail. This is
         the default. The DIGests and INDex options are available only
         if a list has had these features enabled by its owner(s).
         Digests hold all the mail messages sent to a list over a
         certain period of time. Instead of receiving each mail
         individually as it is distributed to list members, you will
         receive all the mail in one batch for a given day, week or
         month. You may then browse through these mail messages at your
         leisure. Note that mail is not edited with the DIGests option,
         you will receive copies of all the mail messages in their
         entirety. The INDex option will provide you with only the date,
         time, subject, number of lines and the sender's name and
         address for all mail messages sent to a list. The text of the
         mail message will not be included. You may then select and
         retrieve any mail that interests you from the list archive.
         Both the DIGests and INDex options provide a means of listening
         in to discussions on mailing lists without having to deal with
         large quantities of incoming mail messages.  The NOMail option
         means that mail sent to the list will not be distributed to
         you. This is useful when you are leaving your computer for an
         extended period of time and you do not want mail from the list
         to fill your mailbox. When you return, you can send the SET
         command with the Mail option to restore mail service.

      SHORThdr | FULLhdr | IETFhdr | DUALhdr
         All mail messages are comprised of header and body sections.
         The header section provides details such as the recipients, the
         original sender and the date and time a mail message was sent.
         The mail body section contains the text of a mail message.
         These options of the SET command indicate the type of mail
         headers you want to receive in the mail distributed from a
         mailing list. SHORThdr means that the mail header will include
         only the essential informational headers (for instance the
         Date:, To:, From:, Subject:, Sender: and Reply-to: headers).
         This is the default. You may change this to FULLhdr, which
         means that all (including non-essential) mail headers will be
         present in e-mail. The IETFhdr option means that LISTSERV will
         not change the headers of a mail message it distributes to you
         other than to add a Received: mail header (and also a
         Message-id: and Sender: headers if either of these were not
         already present). This option is designed specifically for

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         compatibility with SMTP exploders (as used, for instance, on
         the Internet network).  Lastly, DUALhdr is very similar to the
         SHORThdr option except that LISTSERV will also insert mail
         headers at the beginning of the mail body. Therefore, when the
         mail is received and read by a recipient using this option, it
         will start with this information (for instance, the first three
         lines of a mail message may contain the To:, From: and Subject:
         mail headers). This option is useful for users of some PC based
         mail packages that will not display this information from the
         real mail headers.

      CONCEAL | NOCONCEAL
         Indicates whether or not you want your name and mail address to
         appear in the display of list members which is given in
         response to a REView command. The default is NOCONCEAL. Note
         that a complete list of members is always given to list owners
         and LISTSERV administrators regardless of this option.

         +-------------------------------------------------------------+
         |                                                             |
         |  CONFIRM   list-name                                        |
         |                                                             |
         +-------------------------------------------------------------+

         Use  the CONFIRM  command to  renew your  subscription to  a
         list.  Some mailing lists require subscription renewal at
         regular intervals (usually once  a year).  A mail  message is
         automatically sent  to list  members indicating that they  must
         send a CONFIRM command within  a given number of days or they
         will be removed from the list. This command must be sent from
         the same e-mail address  that received the confirmation notice.
         The list-name parameter  is the name  of the mailing  list to
         which  you are confirming your  subscription. LISTSERV  will
         send  a message  that your subscription has been confirmed.

   11.4.2. Commands for FILES:

      LISTSERV also functions as a file server. That is, files can be
      stored at a LISTSERV server and made available for retrieval by
      users upon their request. These files are stored in LISTSERV under
      a hierarchical system of filelists. As the name suggests, a
      filelist is a special file that holds a list of files. Each entry
      in a filelist describes a file that is available for retrieval and
      gives details such as the file's name and size and also a file's
      access code (also known as a FAC) which describes who is
      authorized to retrieve it. These files may themselves be
      filelists, in which case they too will hold information about
      available files or further filelists. In this way, filelists are

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      organized in a hierarchical or tree structure.

      There are two basic types of filelists on LISTSERV servers. The
      first type holds files that have been specifically placed there by
      file owners or LISTSERV administrators. These files may be
      documents, maps or diagrams, or even programs. The second type of
      filelist is associated with a LISTSERV mailing list. These are
      referred to as list filelists and retain copies of all e-mail
      distributed on a particular mailing list. They consist of a series
      of files, each of which holds a copy of the mail messages
      distributed on a list over an interval of time (usually, one
      month). These files may then be retrieved to recover any list mail
      distributed during a specific period. Note that e-mail distributed
      on a mailing list may also be retrieved via the database functions
      of LISTSERV. Not all mailing lists have an associated list
      filelist; this is enabled at a list owner's discretion.

      A further aspect of the file server functions of LISTSERV is the
      concept of packages. A package consists of one or more files that
      appear in a filelist. These may be, for example, a series of files
      that go to make up a software package. A package is declared in a
      LISTSERV filelist through a file that has the special name of
      package-name $PACKAGE.  Within it will be a list of all the files
      that comprise the package.  This list can be reviewed by sending a
      retrieval request for that file.  However, all the files that
      comprise the package may also be retrieved through a request for
      the file: package-name PACKAGE. Note that in this case, the "$"
      (dollar) symbol is dropped from the name. The files that go to
      make up the package will then automatically be sent to the
      requestor. This enables users to retrieve an entire set of files
      that belong to a package with only one command, instead of having
      to retrieve each of these files individually through a series of
      commands.

      The following LISTSERV commands enable general users to manipulate
      files that are stored at a server. This includes commands to
      search for, retrieve and subscribe to files. When sending file
      server commands to LISTSERV, you must address them to the server
      and not to any mailing lists. Note that where the PW= keyword
      appears in a command description, this need only be included in
      the command text if you have defined a personal password at the
      server to which you are sending file server commands. Otherwise,
      it need not be used. The optional F= command keyword may included
      as desired.

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      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  INDex     <filelist>  <F= format>                            |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use the INDex command to get a listing of the files in a
      particular filelist. The filelist parameter specifies the name of
      the filelist you wish to get. If no name is specified, an index of
      the root filelist (called LISTSERV FILELIST) will be sent to you.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  GET       filename  filetype  <filelist>  <F= format>        |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      The GET command is used to retrieve a specific file or package
      from a filelist, provided you are authorized to do so. The
      filename and filetype parameters identify the file or package you
      wish to retrieve.  The optional filelist parameter identifies the
      filelist within which the file or package resides. If it is not
      supplied in the command, LISTSERV will determine the filelist
      through a search of its own internal filelist index.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  AFD       options                                            |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      AFD is an acronym for Automatic File Distribution. This command
      enables you to subscribe to a file or package in a filelist. Every
      time this file or package is updated in its filelist, you will
      then automatically be sent of copy of it by the LISTSERV server.
      You may subscribe to any number of files for packages from any
      filelist with the AFD command. You may also review or delete your
      subscriptions at any LISTSERV server. The options must be one of
      the following:

      ADD  filename  filetype  <filelist> <text> <PW= password>
      <F=format>
         The ADD option allows you to subscribe to a file or package.
         This means that a copy will henceforth be sent to you
         automatically by LISTSERV when it is updated on its filelist.
         The filename and filetype parameters identify a file or package
         to which you want to subscribe. The filelist option allows you
         to specify the name of the filelist in which it is located. If

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         this is not specified in the command, LISTSERV will locate the
         filelist through a search of its own internal filelist index.
         Also, if you wish to have an informational text message
         inserted automatically at the top of the file or package when
         it is sent to you, you may use the text parameter. Note that if
         you omit the filelist option, the text you provide in the text
         parameter must be enclosed in double quotes (").  This
         parameter is most commonly used by network server applications
         that subscribe to files at a LISTSERV on behalf of users. If
         you are subscribing to files directly from LISTSERV yourself,
         you should not need to use this option.

      DELete  filename  filetype  <filelist>  <PW= password>
         Remove your subscription to a file or package for which you
         have an AFD.  The filename and filetype parameters identify a
         file or package to which you wish to remove an AFD. These names
         may also include the "*" (asterisk) wildcard character so that
         multiple files or packages may be removed with one DELete
         command. The filelist option allows you to specify the name of
         the filelist in which it is located. If this is not specified
         in the command, LISTSERV will locate the filelist through a
         search of its own internal filelist index.

      List <(FORMAT>
         The List option shows the files or packages to which you are
         currently subscribed at a LISTSERV. If you include the (FORMAT
         option, then the file format to be used when a file or package
         is sent to you will also be displayed.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  FUI       options                                            |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      FUI is an acronym for File Update Information. It enables you to
      subscribe to a file or package in a filelist. Every time this file
      for package is updated in its filelist, you will then
      automatically be informed of this by the LISTSERV server. This
      command is similar to the AFD command, except you will only be
      sent notification of an update rather than the updated file or
      package itself. You may subscribe to any number of files for
      packages from any filelist with the FUI command. You may also
      review or delete your subscriptions at any LISTSERV server. The
      options parameter must be one of the following:

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      ADD filename  filetype <filelist> <PW=  password>
         The ADD option allows you to subscribe to a file or package by
         adding an FUI to it. The filename and filetype parameters
         identify a file or package to which you want to add an FUI
         subscription. The filelist option allows you to specify the
         name of the filelist in which it is located. If this is not
         given in the command, LISTSERV will locate the filelist through
         a search of its own internal filelist index.

      DELete  filename  filetype  <filelist>  <PW= password>
         Remove your subscription from a file or package for which you
         have an FUI. The filename and filetype parameters identify a
         file or package to which you want to delete an FUI. The
         filelist option allows you to specify the name of the filelist
         in which it is located. If this is not specified in the
         command, LISTSERV will locate the filelist through a search of
         its own internal filelist index.

      List
         The List option shows the files or packages for which you
         currently have an FUI subscription at a LISTSERV server.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  Query File filename  filetype  <filelist>  <(FLags>          |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      This command can be used to get update information on various
      files.  Update information about the file or package specified in
      the filename and filetype parameters will be given. Optionally,
      you may include a filelist name in the filelist parameter. If it
      is omitted, LISTSERV will locate the filelist through a search of
      its own internal filelist index.  You may also specify the (FLags
      option to display additional technical data about the file (which
      can be useful when reporting problems to LISTSERV administrators).

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  PW        options                                            |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      The PW command enables you to add, change or delete a personal
      password on any LISTSERV server. A personal password is designed
      to give you added command security on a LISTSERV since it helps
      prevent impostors using your e-mail address. The use of personal
      passwords is strongly encouraged for this reason. Every server

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      will accept a password registration request from you at any time.
      Passwords are comprised of one to eight alphanumeric characters.
      You may change or delete your password at any time. The options
      parameter must be one of the following:

      ADD  new-password
         Add a new personal password on the LISTSERV processing your
         command.  Once you have registered a password on a LISTSERV
         server, you will be obliged to use the PW= command keyword in
         the commands where it appears as an option.

      CHange  old-password  new-password
         Change your personal password on a LISTSERV server where you
         already have one.

      DELete  old-password
         Remove your personal password from a LISTSERV where you already
         have one. Once you have removed a password from a LISTSERV
         server, you will no longer be obliged to use the PW= command
         keyword in the commands where it appears as an option.

   11.4.3. LISTSERV DATABASE Functions

      LISTSERV provides the facility for users to retrieve old mail that
      has been distributed on mailing lists. Each mailing list has an
      associated database (called a notebook or list archive database)
      in which list mail is stored. Note that databases may not be
      maintained for every mailing list, this is done at the discretion
      of a list owner. The notebook databases are the most commonly used
      of the LISTSERV databases. However, every LISTSERV server also has
      a database of all the EARN/Bitnet computer nodes (called the
      BITEARN database). This is available to all LISTSERV users. The
      backbone LISTSERV servers also have a database of all the LISTSERV
      computer nodes (called the PEERS database). In addition to these
      databases, a LISTSERV server may have any number of different
      databases that have been created locally. To find out what
      databases are accessible at a particular LISTSERV site, send
      following command to that server:

                DATABASE LIST

      To perform a database search, you can send mail to LISTSERV
      containing a batch database job which contains your database
      query. In addition, EARN/Bitnet users on VM or VMS systems can
      access the database facilities interactively via the LDBASE
      program. For more details on the LISTSERV database facilities,
      send an Info DATABASE command to your nearest (or any) LISTSERV
      server (see the section Commands for INFORMATION) or consult the

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      LISTSERV DATABASE Functions chapter in the LISTSERV User Guide.

   11.4.4. Commands for INFORMATION:

      The LISTSERV server can provide a diverse range of information to
      the general user. This includes help files, release levels of the
      server and important configuration files, statistics and
      information pertaining to the EARN/Bitnet network. When sending
      these commands to LISTSERV, they must be addressed to the server
      and not to any mailing lists it may manage. For those commands
      that result in files being sent to the requestor (for example the
      Info command), the format of the file can be specified by the
      optional command keyword F= in the command text (see the section
      LISTSERV Command Keywords for more information).

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  Help                                                         |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use this command to get a brief description of the most commonly
      used LISTSERV commands and also the name and e-mail address of the
      server's postmaster.

      +---------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                                                               |
      |  Info      <topic>  <F= format>                               |
      |                                                               |
      +---------------------------------------------------------------+

      Use this command to get an informational (or help) file from a
      LISTSERV server. The topic option should specify the topic for
      which an informational file will be sent to you. You may get a
      list of valid topics by sending the Info command with no
      parameters to your nearest (or any) LISTSERV.

11.5. Examples

   You wish to subscribe to the EARNEWS list which is located at the
   node FRMOP11. Your full name is Mark P. Waugh. Send the following
   command to LISTSERV@FRMOP11.CNUSC.FR (or LISTSERV@FRMOP11.BITNET):

        SUBSCRIBE EARNEWS Mark P. Waugh

   You wish to leave the INFO-MAC mailing list (to which you have
   already subscribed) at the node CEARN (or CEARN.CERN.FR). The
   command:

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        UNSUBSCRIBE INFO-MAC

   should be sent to the LISTSERV server at CEARN (or CEARN.CERN.FR)
   which manages the INFO-MAC list. To leave all the LISTSERV lists you
   belong to throughout the network, send the following command to your
   nearest (or any) LISTSERV:

        UNSUBSCRIBE * (NETWIDE

   You wish to receive a listing of all mailing lists that have the text
   europe in their name or title. Send the following command to your
   nearest (or any) LISTSERV server:

        LIST GLOBAL EUROPE

   You want to stop receiving mail from all the lists at SEARN (or
   SEARN.SUNET.SE) to which you belong. Send the following command to
   the LISTSERV server at SEARN (or SEARN.SUNET.SE):

        SET * NOMAIL

   You have received a message from the LISTSERV server at IRLEARN (or
   IRLEARN.UCD.IE) asking you to confirm your subscription to the EARN-
   UG list. Send the following command to that server:

        CONFIRM EARN-UG

   You wish to receive a listing of the files in the DOC FILELIST The
   command:

        INDEX DOC

   should be sent to the LISTSERV server at EARNCC (or EARNCC.EARN.NET)
   where this filelist is located. Note that the above command is the
   same as issuing a GET DOC FILELIST command.

   You wish to retrieve the file PCPROG ZIP from a filelist and have it
   sent to you in XXE file format. Send the following command to the
   LISTSERV server that holds this file:

        GET PCPROG ZIP F=XXE

   You want to retrieve all the files that make up a package called
   PROGRAM (as listed in a file called PROGRAM $PACKAGE) from a filelist
   called SAMPLE. Send the command:

        GET PROGRAM PACKAGE SAMPLE

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   You wish to subscribe to a file called BUGDET MEMO in a filelist
   called EXPENSES with an AFD:

        AFD ADD BUDGET MEMO EXPENSES

   To subscribe to a file called VM EMAIL in the DOC FILELIST with an
   FUI, you would send the following command to LISTSERV at node EARNCC
   (or EARNCC.EARN.NET):

        FUI ADD VM EMAIL DOC

11.6. Learning more about LISTSERV

   A standard set of help files are available upon request from each
   LISTSERV server. To get a copy of these files, use the INFO command
   (see the section Commands for INFORMATION).

   Detailed documentation on LISTSERV (and related services) is
   available from the DOC FILELIST at LISTSERV@EARNCC.EARN.NET (or
   LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET). This includes the LISTSERV User Guide which
   is available in both postscript and plain text formats. To obtain a
   list of available documents use the INDex command (see the section
   Commands for FILES).

   There are several mailing lists for discussion of technical LISTSERV
   issues. They are not intended for casual users, but they should be of
   interest to advanced users. They are:

        LSTSRV-L  Technical forum on LISTSERV

        LSTOWN-L  LISTSERV list owners' forum

        LDBASE-L  Forum on LISTSERV database search capabilities



(page 87 continued on part 4)

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